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Washington Post. Retrieved from " https: Nallino in Rome, and recently, the University of Lecce offer Turkish language and literature courses Nocera 3.
In Turkey, however, only Ankara since and Istanbul universities since have departments of Italian language and literature. However, a number of public and private universities offer courses in teaching Italian as a second language at various levels and for diverse purposes.
The first literary translation made from Turkish into Italian dates back only to Apart from a couple of edited volumes, not more than a dozen Turkish aut- hors were translated into Italian up until What follows below will be a discussion based on a bibliography of translated Turkish literature in Italian.
Creating a bibliography of translated Turkish literature in Italian enables us to observe the prevailing trends related to the preference for the transla- tion of works by certain Turkish authors as well as of particular genres and themes. A bibliography of translated literature can also shed light on the relations between Turkish and Italian cultures. However, it needs to be made by Ohannes Aramyan in Armenian letters, and published in Venice in Parlak, in her book, examines the place of Italian literature in Turkish using this bibliography In a world- system of translation such as this, it is not surprising to note that the number of translations between two peripheral languages cannot be high.
It is also worth mentioning that determining the number or even the percentage of translations from a minor language is nearly impossible. As Lea Nocera stated, in Italy there are no precise statistics on translations from the Turkish language Nocera However, these sources have a number of limitations and challenges, which also tells us about the reception of a certain literature.
In the Index, only forty works translated from Turkish into Italian from onwards can be found. The subject categories Dewey Decimal Classification of many of the works are wrong. The language and title of the original publication are not always given. Furthermore, the name of the translator is seldom mentioned in these catalogues.
One can start from the assumption that Turkish literature comprises works written in the Turkish language. Many ethnically Turkish authors do not write only in Turkish, but also in other languages. There are also Turkish writers who reside in Germany and write their work in German. It is my contention that works by these authors should be considered products of German literature. However, in order to provide an inclusive bibliography for readers interested in Turkish culture and literature, I inclu- ded translations made from Turkish authors writing in languages other than Turkish, including Turkish-German authors in the bibliography.
This means those translations into these languages will be made from an intermediary lan- guage, which is Turkish. The bibliography lists translations only in book form. There are obviously innumerable poems, short stories, or short excerpts from Turkish authors published in anthologies, journals and magazines. These translations have not been included in this study.
It is probable that I have overlooked some translations in compiling the bibliography. Moreover, the above mentioned decisions can easily be criticized. As mentioned above, my aim was to offer a comprehensive list of translations in Italian for anyone interested in Turkish culture and literature. Nur Baba was retranslated by Giampiero Bellingeri in Until , apart from four anthologies, not more than a dozen Turkish authors were translated into Italian.
During the s, two Turkish poets were introduced to Italian readers. In , Poesie mistiche by Rumi was translated by the prolific Italian orientalist Alessandro Bausani, who was one of the most important trans- lators of the Koran into Italian.
They soon became friends, but their language of communication was French. Their collaboration continued for the coming years at various meetings and congresses. Lussu argued that she rendered his poems and creativity of another country directly, without filtering them with her Western culture.
This was something new that was not understood because it seemed if there had not been the ideological elaboration of a Westerner, one could not understand anything Ballestra Lussu attributed the interest Hikmet later received to the younger generation, complained, however, about the lack of any critiques published about him or his poems.
See Lussu b. One of them was Orhan Pamuk. The novel was republished in by Einaudi, this time with a more appropriate title Il castello bianco. Tranchida also published four other books by Kemal between Two volumes of poetry by Enis Batur were also translated for the first time in and According to the bibliography, 36 new books were translated during the s, making the number of all translations until then The number of translated authors reached The real boom occurred after Since , more than new books of Turkish literature were published in Italian.
Several factors might have contributed to this development. The Nobel Prize awarded to Orhan Pamuk in , the Frankfurt Book Fair in where Turkey was the guest of honor, and the launch of the TEDA, a subvention project for the publication of Turkish cultural, artistic, and literary works in foreign languages by the Turkish Ministry of Culture in Furthermore, as Nocera suggested, the increase of translations into other languages, especially into English and French, allowed the publishers to read the novels in those languages and have the sales data in the relevant countries, even if those countries may have different business dynamics, before making a decision to publish a translation in Italy Nocera Noteworthy is the increasing number of works translated by women aut- İ.
There has been a special interest in Turkish women writers. First written in English, the book could not find a publisher in the USA.
The French translation also had the same fate. It was then translated into Italian by the author and published in Italy. Another genre gaining some prominence is detective fiction crime fiction.
Finally, although fewer in number than prose translations, poetry seems to be also popular with Italians. Books by 14 Turkish poets and eight anthologies of Turkish poetry have been translated.
Around one third of these, 24 authors whose works are translated into Italian, are women. As can be seen in the bibliography, Rumi has also been widely translated into Italian. The num- ber of translators is still not high, however, their role in promoting Turkish literature has been valuable not only as translators, but also as consultants to publishers helping them in their decisions to choose titles worth translating Nocera Nocera argues that this is not due to the lack of competent translators, and wonders if this is an economic choice, a way to directly control the translation, or is it because these translations were inspired by the success gained in other countries Nocera 21?
Table 1. Number and type of Italian translations from Turkish literature Moreover, there were only a handful of translators who undertook such translation projects. In recent years, however, not only the number of translators from Turkish into Italian has increased, but also translations from Turkish literature into Italian are now more diversified.
Perhaps, one of the factors helping the increasing interest in Turkish literature after the s was the transition Turkish literature itself expe- rienced. Turkish literature, until the s, was very much political and ideological. Political topics, especially Westernization, seemed to be the main source of inspiration until about the mid-forties. The duality seen as the West versus East in this period became the oppressor versus the oppres- sed after the s.
This theme was modified later in stories of the rural migrants to newly industrializing areas after the s. Since the beginning of the s substantial changes have occurred in all aspects of life in Turkey.
The military regime, which came to power on 12 September , put an end to political activity for the next three years. Amongst the characteristic features of the s were attempts to remove fragmentation and polarization of the political parties, bureaucracy, universities, and the whole society.
In this respect, as the constitution had permitted Turkish society to be politicized, the constitution re- versed the process and tried to create a depoliticized society. However, the 13 See Karpat and Moran As Talat Sait Halman pointed out, the Turkish novel, and literature in general, was liberated from ideology after the s Halman 6 , and with a range of new viewpoints, beliefs, settings, situations and ideologies, it became more diversified.
The incre- asing pluralism in the Turkish society with the emergence of new political ideologies and multiple identities also contributed to this development. With the diversity of genres, forms, and techniques, new Turkish literature could develop a synthesis of its own heritage and acquired elements. In this respect, Latife Tekin b. It should therefore not be surprising to see that beginning in the late s, and early s, works, especially novels, by contemporary Turkish authors such as Tekin and Pamuk, were translated into Italian and also other Western languages and praised for their literary values.
Certainly, the recent Turkish literary texts selected for translation speak to a wider readership than in the past. The visibility of Turkish literature and Turkish writers in the international arena also contributed to an increased interest both by publishers and readers in Italy. This probably gives the publishers a certain guarantee for commercial success. These symposia bring together translators, editors, publishers, literary agents, and critics who have contributed to the dissemination of Turkish literature in many different languages, enabling discussions on some questions relevant to translation.
The symposia also enable professional networking by bringing together literary agents invited from different parts of the world and Turkish writers, publishers, translators, and literary agents. Today, there are 67 Turkish writers whose books were translated into Italian. With other literary works translated and published in anthologies, journals, and magazines, this number becomes even higher. However, there is still a long list of Turkish authors waiting to be translated into Italian.
And the numbers alone do not account for the reception of translations. There is still much need for an increased number of readers and reviewers, and of course students of Turkish literature in Italy.
There is also need for detailed analyses of these translations to reveal translational decisions and norms, which play a role in creating an image of Turks and Turkey. Looking at the picture of translations from Turkish literature in the last decade, we can expect that more classic and contemporary Turkish literary works will continue to be translated and read in Italy, and contribute to strengthening ties between the two countries. A Oriente!
Rivista italiana di lin- gue e culture orientali. And, Metin.
Aykol, Esmahan. Palermo: Sellerio. Ballestra, Silvia. Benadusi, Lorenzo. Cortelazzo, Manlio. Il Veltro March-August , Tauris, Halman, Talat Sait. Heilbron, Johan. Horata, Osman. Istituto Centrale per il catalogo unico delle biblioteche italiane e per le informazioni bibliografiche ICCU.
Karpat, Kemal H. Lussu, Joyce.
Nocera, Lea. Poesia, n. Rossi, Ettore. Salomoni, Fabio. Soykut, Mustafa. Index Translationum. Extract PDF Pages. Get a new document containing only the desired pages. Online, no installation or registration required. It's free, quick and easy to use. Open organizestart. In the right hand pane, select the Organize Pages tool. Note: If the right hand pane is collapsed, you can click the small arrow on the far right to expand it.