“The pleasure we derive from perusing the Thousand-and-One Stories ture, namely The Arabian Nights, the Kama Sutra, and The Perfumed. Garden, at his. The Complete Nights. IdentifierNights_ Identifier-arkark:/ /tx OcrABBYY FineReader (Extended OCR). the Thousand Nights and One Night. RENDERED INTO ENGLISH FROM. THE LITERAL AND COMPLETE. FRENCH TRANSLATION OF. DR terney.infoS.
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The Arabian Nights has often been banned by Arab governments even as recently as when Egypt issued a ban. The first documented evidence for the collection is a 12th century Cairene notebook : the oldest manuscripts date from the 15th century and consist of about nights. The stories were circulated in manuscript for centuries until they were written down in a definite form during the late 13th century, somewhere in Syria or Egypt. All later manuscript versions originate in this now-lost document and they fall into two main bunches one developed in Syria and the other in Egypt.
The Syrian collection remained close to the original. The Egyptian collection, on the other hand, absorbed many further stories in an apparent quest to actually arrive at the nights of the title. Because of the various inputs to the final collection, it is important to recognize that there is no ONE version of this tales with universal acceptance.
Plots from these stories also became stock elements in English Pantomime. So that by the middle of the century most English children would have been fairly familiar with these particular tales. Here is a very good collection of ancient tales called Arabian Nights Stories.
In a similar vein, Greek folktales would extend their length by ad- ding episodes, whereas tales in the Nights turn to describing details or deviate into poetry see MacDonald The distinction between Greek folktales and stories from the Arabian Nights relates to both narrative style and cultural specifics.
At the same time it is in accordance with the mnemonic procedure of remembering and retelling folktales as well as the maintenance of an interior rhythm during the time of narration. Another possible reason for the stylistic differences between the Nights and Greek folktales is the socio-historical context of the two corpora. The registers of the Greek folktales here referred to originate from traditional agricultural communities of the late nineteenth and the twentieth centuries.
This means that the narration was clearly posited in the framework of an acceptable social behavior according to the rules of those communities.
Their rules would in- clude a sense of economy, and the resulting modesty would permit a certain degree of diversion only for jocular narratives, even though there again de- tailed descriptions would not be tolerated.
In other words, laughing about a jocular narrative is more due to the signified than to the signifier. These stylistic arguments affect all of the tale-types dis- cussed below. Therefore, the amount of registered Greek variants in the following table above all indicates the dissemination of a given tale-type in the Greek ter- ritory before The Arabian Nights in Greece No.
None 60 vol. None 75 69 vol. On the other hand, only a few of the tales belong to those popular in Greek tradition with more than 20 registered variants while not regularly corresponding to a translated story from the Nights.
The quantitative evalu- ation suggests that the Greek translations of the Nights are not a main point of entrance into Greek oral tradition for those tales. The Forty Thieves, AT Independently of a high or low dissemination of the Greek variants, some of the plots and themes have evolved in unexpected ways in Greek tradition. Search for the Golden Bird. In the Greek variants, several elements are not represented, such as the lower maternal origin of the third son or his mar- riage with two or three princesses during his adventures.
A major difference in the Greek vari- ants of AT The Animal Languages is the fact that the laborer has received the gift to understand the language of the animals from a grateful snake. This motif is also known from Greek mythology in the story of Melampous. Instead of AT A: The Greek variants of AT The Entrapped Suitors, corresponding to three stories from the Nights Chauvin: In the Greek texts, faithfulness and faithlessness are described in the same contexts and become extremely confusing in very similar plots.
Here, we recognize a process common in oral tradition, especially jokes and gossip, to consistently confuse truth and falsehood in order to veil deviant social beha- vior Papachristophorou The motifs related to the clever peasant girl Mot. J Here the debate of the couple consists of a codified dialogue, quite dif- ferent in each variant, or in the intelligent way the girl divides a roast chicken for the members of her family according to their status such as in AT The Wise Carving of the Fowl.
Apart from the clever argument, however, the two plots differ so much that they can hardly be considered as two variants of the same tale-type. Dissimulated inversions of certain themes are indicated by Greek variants of AT In the Greek texts, the daughter of the sea refuses to speak to her human husband un- less he tells her about her origins.
Julnar in the Nights, on the contrary, breaks her self-imposed silence herself in order to tell her human husband about their forthcoming child and explain her own origins.
It is a standard motif in the Greek variants of tale-type AT Through the motif of the supernatural wife, tale-type AT is affiliated with types AT The Mouse Cat, Frog, etc.
As Megas has shown By further adding to the above-mentioned tales tale-type AT The Four Skillful Brothers, which is connected to the same story by the in- troduction of the three brothers who have fallen in love with the same woman, four tale-types from Greek oral tradition are in close connection with the tale from the corpus of the Nights.
The archery contest serves as an alternative introduction for two more tale- types in the Greek corpus, AT and AT Tale-type AT also pre- serves a considerable amount of points in common with the Arabian tale. Megas The animal form of the supernatural wife is also a dominant element in the Greek corpus of AT A: The Quest for the Unknown, even in those vari- ants that contain an alternative introduction.
There, the hero is of low social condition, usually a fisherman, and the supernatural bride appears in the form of a turtle he has captured in his net. According to Megas f. This form of the tale-type is so popular in the Greek corpus 32 out of 80 and so similar to the three stories from the Nights that it can be considered their Greek equivalent. These variants are close to the Greek legends about fairies with the only difference that the quest for the lost wife is successful.
The alliance with a fairy always brings the hero to a position of power and wealth, a develop- ment that is in accordance with the legendary benefactor effect of the alliance between fairies and human beings.
Another persistent narrative element in those stories is the attachment of fairies to their children that is typical for fairy legends in general. Loans from legends appear to be quite common in the stories and tales we have examined on this occasion, revealing a more complex level of affiliation with this genre of orality, a suggestion enhanced by the kinship of the fairies of Greek oral tradition with the Nymphs and the Moirai Fates of Greek mythology Papachristophorou The Greek fairies are thus close to the three Fates who always predict an irrevocable destiny for humans on the third day of their life.
Moreover, they are close to the figure of Fortune that, while being unique for each human being, can be changed. This contradictory perception of destiny has probably affected the dissemination of several tale-types related to stories from the Nights elaborating the theme of destiny.
Conclusion While Greek oral tradition offered a fertile soil for the creative adaptation of various tales included in the corpus of the Arabian Nights, it did not do so for all of them.
At the same time, the similarities discussed above are neither al- ways explicit nor do they always concern entire tale-types. Even so, they sug- gest a considerable exchange between the narratives of the Nights and Greek oral tradition.
Most likely, the introduction of specific narratives into Greek oral tradition was not, however, due to the literary tradition of the Nights in Greek translation or other European translations.
Since the peoples of the Eastern Mediterranean area share a secular history of co-habitation through both invasions and commercial ex- change, the reception ground was even more fertile.
This fact applies in general to the Balkan region. The period of four or five centuries of Ottoman occu- pation had profoundly familiarized the peoples of the Balkan with Oriental mentality. That historical impact affected the approach of modern Greek scholars, who, starting with the middle of the eighteenth century, debated the argument of an uninterrupted historical continuity whose origins were posited in ancient Greece, and instead argued for a cultural kinship with the Occident towards which the newly born Greek nation was bound to turn see Dimaras Against that backdrop, the Arabian Nights at the historical mo- ment of their introduction into scholarly consciousness in Greece could not offer an attractive field for comparative research.
Nevertheless, the field for studying the similarities of narrative constituents and the socio-cultural el- ements that facilitated their reception is vast, while divergence and variety be- speak the mechanisms of oral tradition.
Georgiou A. Katalogos ellinikon paramythion George A. Catalogue of Greek Folktales. AT —; vol. AT — Suomalainen Tiedeakatemia, Mille et un contes de la nuit. Gallimard, Chauvin, Victor: Harrassowitz, — Folktales and Society: Story-telling in a Hungarian Peasant Community. Transated by Emily M. Indiana University Press, Dimaras, Konstantinos Th.: Neoellinikos Diafotismos Modern Greek Enlightenment.
Ermis, Dragoumis, Nicolaos: Oi kata tin Anatolin Mythologoi Mythologists in the Orient.
Pandora 1,3 69— Steiner, Essai de classification. Bey- routh: El-Shamy, Hasan: The Demographic Factor. The Telling of Stories. Approaches to a Traditional Craft. Odense University Press, , 63— Gerhardt, Mia I.: The Art of Story-telling: Brill, Grunebaum, Gustave E. Histoire et civilisation. Chapter 9: Payot, Veuve Duchesne, Holbek, Bengt: Suo- malainen Tiedeakatemia, Horovitz, Josef: The Origins of the Arabian Nights. Islamic Culture 1 36— Iliou, Philippos: Prosthikes stin elliniki vivliografia.
Ta vivliografika kataloipa tou E. Legrand kai tou H. Pernot — Additions to the Greek Bibliography.
Diogenis, Imellos, St. Laografike idhisis peri to Gallo periigiti P. De Guys. Epetiris tou Laografikou Arheiou 13—14 —61 — Kaplanoglou, Marianthi: Elliniki Laiki Paradosi: Ta paramythia sta periodika gia paidia kai gia neous Greek Folk Tradition: Ellinika Grammata, Kehayoglou, Yorgos: Ellinika 29 — Hilies ke Mia Nyhtes: Diavazo 33 42— Garnier, The European Folktale: Form and Nature.
Translated by John D. MacDonald, Duncan B.: The Earlier History of the Arabian Nights.
Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society — Marzolph, Ulrich: Re-locating the Arabian Nights. Orientalis Lovanensia Analecta 87 — Arabia ridens. Frankfurt am Main: Klostermann, Megas, Georgios A.: Laographia 17 — To elliniko paramythi. Meraklis, Michael G.: Mous- saiou-Bouyoukou. Ta paramythia mas Our Folktales.