Physics textbook for university pdf


 

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Physics Textbook For University Pdf

This physics textbook is designed to support my personal teaching activities at It is freely available in its entirety in a downloadable PDF form or to be read. University Physics with Modern Physics [13th Edition] - Young & terney.info .. it was revolutionary among calculus-based physics textbooks in its emphasis . Schaum's Outline of College Physics Fusion Plasma Physics (Physics Textbook) College Chemistry: An Introductory Textbook of General Chemistry.

Young RogeR A. He was an undergraduate at the University of California campuses in San Diego and Los Angeles and did his doctoral research in nuclear theory at Stanford University under the direction of Professor J. Dirk Walecka. Freedman has taught in both the Department of Physics and the College of Creative Studies a branch of the university intended for highly gifted and motivated undergraduates. He has published research in nuclear physics elementary particle physics and laser physics.

A textbook Addison-Wesley physics series. Principles of physics series. College Chemistry: An Introductory Textbook of General Chemistry. A Textbook of General Practice. A Textbook of Medical Instruments. A textbook of modern toxicology. A Textbook Of Marxist Philosophy. A Textbook of Modern Toxicology. Recommend Documents. Stacey Fusion Plasma Physics Dr. Weston M.

Stacey Georgia Institu All Rights Reserved. We ignore air resistance by making the ball move in a vacuum and we make the weight constant. Now we have a problem that is simple enough to deal with Fig. We will analyze this model in detail in Chapter 3. We have to overlook quite a few minor effects to make an idealized model but we must be careful not to neglect too much. If we ignore the effects of grav- ity completely then our model predicts that when we throw the ball up it will go in a straight line and disappear into space.

A useful model simplifies a problem enough to make it manageable yet keeps its essential features. Direction of motion Direction of motion Treat the baseball as a point object particle. No air resistance. Baseball spins and has a complex shape.

Air resistance and wind exert forces on the ball. Gravitational force on ball depends on altitude. Gravitational force on ball is constant. This model works fairly well for a dropped cannonball but not so well for a feather. Idealized models play a crucial role throughout this book. Watch for them in discussions of physical theories and their applications to specific problems.

Experiments require measurements and we generally use numbers to describe the results of measurements. Any number that is used to describe a physical phenomenon quantitatively is called a physical quantity. For example two physical quanti - ties that describe you are your weight and your height.

College Physics - Physics and Astronomy

Some physical quantities are so fundamental that we can define them only by describing how to measure them. Such a definition is called an operational definition.

Two examples are measuring a distance by using a ruler and measuring a time interval by using a stopwatch. In other cases we define a physical quantity by describing how to calculate it from other quantities that we can measure.

Thus we might define the average speed of a moving object as the distance traveled measured with a ruler divided by the time of travel measured with a stopwatch. When we measure a quantity we always compare it with some reference stan - dard. When we say that a Ferrari Italia is 4. Such a standard defines a unit of the quantity. The meter is a unit of distance and the second is a unit of time. To make accurate reliable measurements we need units of measurement that do not change and that can be duplicated by observers in various locations.

Appendix A gives a list of all SI units as well as definitions of the most fundamental units. Time From until the unit of time was defined as a certain fraction of the mean solar day the average time between successive arrivals of the sun at its highest point in the sky.

The present standard adopted in is much more precise. It is based on an atomic clock which uses the energy difference between the two lowest energy states of the cesium atom Cs. When bombarded by microwaves of precisely the proper frequency cesium atoms undergo a transition from one of these states to the other. One second abbreviated s is defined as the time required for cycles of this microwave radiation Fig. Length In an atomic standard for the meter was also established using the wavelength of the orange-red light emitted by excited atoms of krypton 1 86 Kr2.

From this length standard the speed of light in vacuum was measured to be ms. In November the length standard was changed again so that the speed of light in vacuum was defined to be precisely ms. These measurements are useful for setting standards because they give the same results no matter where they are made.

Light source Cesium atom Cesium atom Microwave radiation with a frequency of exactly cycles per second An atomic clock uses this phenomenon to tune microwaves to this exact frequency. It then counts 1 second for each cycles. Light travels exactly m in 1 s. This modern definition provides a much more precise standard of length than the one based on a wave- length of light. An atomic standard of mass would be more fundamental but at present we cannot measure masses on an atomic scale with as much accuracy as on a macroscopic scale.

The gram which is not a fundamental unit is 0. Other derived units can be formed from the fundamental units.

For example the units of speed are meters per second or ms these are the units of length m divided by the units of time s. Unit Prefixes Once we have defined the fundamental units it is easy to introduce larger and smaller units for the same physical quantities. In the metric system these other units are related to the fundamental units or in the case of mass to the gram by multiples of 10 or 1 10 Thus one kilometer 11 km2 is meters and one centi- meter 11 cm2 is 1 meter.

We usually express multiples of 10 or 1 10 in exponential notation: With this notation 1 km 10 3 m and 1 cm 10 -2 m. The names of the additional units are derived by adding a prefix to the name of the fundamental unit.

Table 1. Dust Stars 5 light-years Gas W hat are the most fundamental constituents of matter How did the universe begin And what is the fate of our universe In this chapter we will explore what physicists and astronomers have learned in their quest to answer these questions. Fun - damental particles are the smallest things in the universe and cosmology deals with the biggest thing there is—the universe itself.

A college textbook of physics

The development of high-energy accelerators and associated detectors has been crucial in our emerging understanding of particles. We can classify par - ticles and their interactions in several ways in terms of conservation laws and symmetries some of which are absolute and others of which are obeyed only in certain kinds of interactions.

In about b. This idea lay dormant until about when the English scientist John Dalton — often called the father of modern chemistry discovered that many chemical phenomena could be explained if atoms of each element are the basic indivisible building blocks of matter.

The characteristic spectra of elements suggested that atoms have internal structure This image shows a por- tion of the Eagle Nebula a region some light-years away where new stars are forming. Looking back at … In Rutherford made an additional discovery: When alpha particles are fired into nitrogen one product is hydrogen gas. He reasoned that the hydrogen nucleus is a constituent of the nuclei of heavier atoms such as nitrogen and that a collision with a fast-moving alpha particle can dislodge one of those hydrogen nuclei.

Thus the hydrogen nucleus is an elementary particle that Rutherford named the proton. Physicists were on their way to understanding the principles that underlie atomic structure.

Atoms and nuclei can emit create and absorb destroy photons see Section Considered as particles photons have zero charge and zero rest mass.

In particle physics a photon is denoted by the symbol g the Greek letter gamma. Experiments by the English physicist James Chadwick in showed that the emitted particles were electrically neutral with mass approximately equal to that of the proton.

Chadwick christened these particles neutrons symbol n or 1 0 n. This is the principle of the cloud chamber described below. Because neutrons have no charge they are difficult to detect directly they interact hardly at all with electrons and produce little ionization when they pass through matter.

However neutrons can be slowed down by scattering from nuclei and they can penetrate a nucleus. Hence slow neutrons can be detected by means of a nuclear reaction in which a neutron is absorbed and an alpha particle is emitted.

Later experi - ments showed that neutrons and protons like electrons are spin 1 2 particles see Section The discovery of the neutron cleared up a mystery about the composition of the nucleus. Before the mass of a nucleus was thought to be due only to protons but no one understood why the charge-to-mass ratio was not the same for all nuclides.

College Physics - Physics and Astronomy - PDF Drive

It soon became clear that all nuclides except 1 1 H contain both protons and neutrons. Hence the proton the neutron and the electron are the building blocks of atoms. However that is not the end of the particle story these are not the only particles and particles can do more than build atoms. The photograph was made by Carl D. Anderson in It then counts 1 second for each cycles. Light travels exactly m in 1 s.

This modern definition provides a much more precise standard of length than the one based on a wave- length of light. An atomic standard of mass would be more fundamental but at present we cannot measure masses on an atomic scale with as much accuracy as on a macroscopic scale. The gram which is not a fundamental unit is 0.

Other derived units can be formed from the fundamental units. For example the units of speed are meters per second or ms these are the units of length m divided by the units of time s. Unit Prefixes Once we have defined the fundamental units it is easy to introduce larger and smaller units for the same physical quantities.

In the metric system these other units are related to the fundamental units or in the case of mass to the gram by multiples of 10 or 1 10 Thus one kilometer 11 km2 is meters and one centi- meter 11 cm2 is 1 meter.

We usually express multiples of 10 or 1 10 in exponential notation: 10 3 1 10 -3 and so on. With this notation 1 km 10 3 m and 1 cm 10 -2 m. The names of the additional units are derived by adding a prefix to the name of the fundamental unit. Table 1. Fun - damental particles are the smallest things in the universe and cosmology deals with the biggest thing there is—the universe itself.

The development of high-energy accelerators and associated detectors has been crucial in our emerging understanding of particles. We can classify par - ticles and their interactions in several ways in terms of conservation laws and symmetries some of which are absolute and others of which are obeyed only in certain kinds of interactions. In about b. This idea lay dormant until about when the English scientist John Dalton — often called the father of modern chemistry discovered that many chemical phenomena could be explained if atoms of each element are the basic indivisible building blocks of matter.

The characteristic spectra of elements suggested that atoms have internal structure This image shows a por- tion of the Eagle Nebula a region some light-years away where new stars are forming. Looking back at … In Rutherford made an additional discovery: When alpha particles are fired into nitrogen one product is hydrogen gas.

He reasoned that the hydrogen nucleus is a constituent of the nuclei of heavier atoms such as nitrogen and that a collision with a fast-moving alpha particle can dislodge one of those hydrogen nuclei. Thus the hydrogen nucleus is an elementary particle that Rutherford named the proton. Physicists were on their way to understanding the principles that underlie atomic structure.

Atoms and nuclei can emit create and absorb destroy photons see Section Considered as particles photons have zero charge and zero rest mass. In particle physics a photon is denoted by the symbol g the Greek letter gamma. Experiments by the English physicist James Chadwick in showed that the emitted particles were electrically neutral with mass approximately equal to that of the proton.

Chadwick christened these particles neutrons symbol n or 1 0 n. This is the principle of the cloud chamber described below. Because neutrons have no charge they are difficult to detect directly they interact hardly at all with electrons and produce little ionization when they pass through matter.

However neutrons can be slowed down by scattering from nuclei and they can penetrate a nucleus. Hence slow neutrons can be detected by means of a nuclear reaction in which a neutron is absorbed and an alpha particle is emitted. Later experi - ments showed that neutrons and protons like electrons are spin 1 2 particles see Section The discovery of the neutron cleared up a mystery about the composition of the nucleus.

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Before the mass of a nucleus was thought to be due only to protons but no one understood why the charge-to-mass ratio was not the same for all nuclides. It soon became clear that all nuclides except 1 1 H contain both protons and neutrons. Hence the proton the neutron and the electron are the building blocks of atoms. However that is not the end of the particle story these are not the only particles and particles can do more than build atoms. The photograph was made by Carl D. Anderson in Positron track Lead plate 6 mm thick The positron follows a curved path owing to the presence of a magnetic field.

The track is more strongly curved above the lead plate showing that the positron was traveling upward and lost energy and speed as it passed through the plate.

Figure The chamber contained a supercooled vapor a charged particle passing through the vapor causes ionization and the ions trigger the condensation of liquid droplets from the vapor. The cloud chamber in Fig. The particle has passed through a thin lead plate which extends from left to right in the figure that lies within the chamber. The track is more tightly curved above the plate than below it showing that the speed was less above the plate than below it.

Therefore the particle had to be moving upward it could not have gained energy passing through the lead. The thickness and curva- ture of the track suggested that its mass and the magnitude of its charge equaled those of the electron. But the directions of the magnetic field and the velocity in the magnetic force equation F S qY S : B S showed that the particle had positive charge.

Anderson christened this particle the positron. To theorists the appearance of the positron was a welcome development. In Section One of the puzzling features of the Dirac equation was that for a free electron it predicted not only a continuum of energy states greater than its rest energy m e c 2 as expected but also a continuum of negative energy states less than -m e c 2 Fig. That posed a problem. The exclusion principle see Section A vacancy in a negative-energy state would act like a positive charge just as a hole in the valence band of a semiconductor see Section Initially Dirac tried to argue that such vacancies were protons.

Furthermore the Dirac energy-state picture provides a mechanism for the creation of positrons. When an electron in a negative-energy state absorbs a photon with energy greater than 2m e c 2 it goes to a positive state Fig. The vacancy that it leaves behind is observed as a positron the result is the creation of an electron—positron pair.

Similarly when an electron in a positive-energy state falls into a vacancy both the electron and the vacancy that is the positron disappear and photons are emitted Fig. Thus the Dirac theory leads naturally to the conclusion that like photons electrons can be created and destroyed. While photons can be created and destroyed singly electrons can be produced or destroyed only in electron—positron pairs or in association with other particles.

Creating or destroying an electron alone would mean creating or destroying an amount of charge -e which would violate the conservation of electric charge. His reformulation of the Dirac theory eliminated difficult calculations involving the infinite sea of negative-energy states and put electrons and positrons on the same footing. But the creation and destruction of electron—positron pairs remain. The Dirac theory provides the beginning of a theoretical framework for creation and destruction of all fundamental particles.

Experiment and theory tell us that the masses of the positron and electron are identical and that their charges are equal in magnitude but opposite in sign.

However S S and M S have the same magnitude for both particles because they have the same spin. We use the term antiparticle for a particle that is related to another particle as the positron is to the electron.

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