Covers system administration tasks like maintaining, monitoring and customizing an initially . Implementation on SUSE Linux Enterprise Server • MOK ( Machine. Owner Key) .. The final PDF is formatted through FOP. Administration Guide. SUSE Linux . Configuring and Using an Rsync Server For More Implementation on SUSE Linux Enterprise Desktop • MOK (Machine .. The final PDF is formatted through FOP. SLP Front-Ends in SUSE Linux Enterprise Server. .. We provide HTML and PDF versions of our books in different languages. The fol- Covers system administration tasks like maintaining, monitoring, and customizing.
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This book helps you administer your SuSE Linux Enterprise Server on IBM a full set of modules to make administration available at one point in your Ghostscript is a program that accepts PostScript and PDF files as input. SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 11 SP3_ Administration terney.info - Ebook download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read book online. described that allow the administrator to prepare these deployment methods. We provide HTML and PDF versions of our books in different installation of SUSE Linux Enterprise Server from DVD, or from an ISO image.
The exact amount strongly depends on the number of snapshots you keep and the amount of data modifications. As a rule of thumb you should consider using twice the size than you normally would. Older snapshots occupy more space than recent ones. Displaying the amount of disk space a snapshot allocates is currently not supported by the Btrfs tools.
Doing an upgrade from one service pack to another results in snapshots occupying a lot of disk space on the system subvolumes, because a lot of data gets changed package updates. Manually deleting these snapshots once they are no longer needed is recommended. For this purpose, Snapper is configured to create a pair of snapshots before and after each run of zypper and YaST. Snapper also lets you restore system files that have been accidentally deleted or modified.
Hourly backups are created for this purpose. By default, automatic snapshots as described above are configured for the root partition and its subvolumes. Every time you start a YaST module or a Zypper transaction, two snapshots are created: a pre-snapshot capturing the state of the file system before the start of the module and a post-snapshot after the module has been finished.
Comparing two snapshots the tools also allow you to see which files have been changed. You can also display the differences between two versions of a file diff. Since Linux is a multitasking system, processes other than YaST or Zypper may modify data in the time frame between the pre- and the post-snapshot. If this is the case, completely reverting to the pre-snapshot will also undo these changes by other processes. In most cases this would be unwantedtherefore it is strongly recommended to closely review the changes between two snapshots before starting the rollback.
If there are changes from other processes you want to keep, select which files to roll back. Important: Limitations Make sure you know about Snapper's limitations before attempting to use its rollback mechanism. See Section 4. If this number is exceeded, the oldest snapshot s will be deleted.
Procedure 4. Undoing changes using the YaST Snapper module 1. Make sure Current Configuration is set to root. This is always the case unless you have manually added own Snapper configurations. Choose a pair of pre- and post-snapshots from the list. Click Show Changes to open the list of files that differ between the two snapshots.
The following image shows a list of files that have changed after having added the user tester. Review the list of files. To display a diff between the pre- and post-version of a file, select it from the list. To restore a set of files, select the relevant files or directories by ticking the respective check box. Click Restore Selected and confirm the action by clicking Yes. To restore a single file, activate its diff view by clicking on its name.
Click Restore From First and confirm your choice with Yes. Get a list of YaST and Zypper snapshots by running snapper list -t pre-post. Get a list of changed files for a snapshot pair with snapper status PRE.. The following example shows a snapshot pair for the installation of the package ncftp. To display the diff for a certain file, run snapper diff PRE.. To restore one or more files run snapper -v undochange PRE.. You can use these backup snapshots to restore files that have accidentally been deleted or modified beyond recovery.
By making use of Snapper's diff feature you can also find out which modifications have been made at a certain point of time.
Hourly backup snapshots are of the type Single and are marked with the description timeline. To restore files from these snapshots proceed as described in Procedure 4.
Note: Storage Time of Snapshots By default, the first snapshot of the last ten days, months, and years are kept. For details see Example 4. Creating and Modifying Snapper Configurations The way Snapper behaves is defined in a config file that is specific for each partition or Btrfs subvolume.
You may create your own configurations for other partitions formatted with Btrfs or existing subvolumes on a Btrfs partition. You can use either snapper itself or the YaST Snapper module to restore files from these snapshots.
In YaST you need to select your Current Configuration, while you need to specify your config for snapper with the global switch -c e.
DNS Security DHCP Using NetworkManager Use Cases for NetworkManager Enabling or Disabling NetworkManager Configuring Network Connections Using KNetworkManager NetworkManager and VPN NetworkManager and Security. Samba Terminology Starting and Stopping Samba Configuring a Samba Server Configuring Clients Samba as Login Server Samba Server in the Network with Active Directory Installing NFS Server Configuring NFS Server File Synchronization Available Data Synchronization Software Determining Factors for Selecting a Program Introduction to CVS Introduction to rsync Quick Start Configuring Apache Starting and Stopping Apache Installing, Activating, and Configuring Modules Avoiding Security Problems Starting the FTP Server FTP General Settings FTP Performance Settings Expert Settings The Squid Proxy Server Some Facts about Proxy Caches System Requirements Starting Squid Configuring a Transparent Proxy Cache Report Generation with Calamaris Introduction and Basic Concept Setting up SFCB Help and Documentation Documentation Directory Man Pages Info Pages Online Resources.
Common Problems and Their Solutions Finding and Gathering Information Installation Problems Boot Problems Login Problems. An Example Network B. GNU Licenses B. The Software Installation Module 9. System Services Runlevel 9. System Configuration Using the sysconfig Editor Boot Loader Settings Secure Boot Process Integrating a Mobile Computer in an Existing Environment Configuring the Wireless Network Card Gesture Recognition with CellWriter Annotating a PDF with Xournal Editing Texts with Dasher Configuring Network Settings Modem Configuration ISDN Configuration DSL Configuration NTP Server Advanced NTP Configuration: Security Settings DNS Server Installation: Forwarder Settings DNS Zones Finish Wizard DNS Server: Logging Zone Editor Basics Zone Editor NS Records.
Zone Editor MX Records Zone Editor SOA DHCP Server: Card Selection Global Settings Dynamic DHCP Start-Up Host Management Chroot Jail and Declarations Selecting a Declaration Type Configuring Subnets TSIG Configuration Network Interface and Firewall Determining Windows Domain Membership Exporting Directories with NFSv2 and v3 Default Host Summary Listen Ports and Addresses Server Modules Package selection of additional CIM providers Checking Media Displaying Hardware Information US Keyboard Layout Automatic Repair Mode List of Tables 6.
RPM Verify Options 7. Bash Configuration Files for Login Shells 7. Special Files for Bash 7. Overview of a Standard Directory Tree 7. Useful Environment Variables. Remove Time Stamp Files Private IP Address Domains Log Files A Shell Script Printing a Text 9.
Man Pages—Categories and Descriptions Script to Search for Packages 7. Administration Guide https: Specific Addresses Parameters of fc-list Setting Resources for the User Features of the File Synchronization Tools: Zypper—List of Known Repositories 6.
Possible init Script Options Manual Network Configuration Scripts Screen Resolution and Color Depth Reference Interrupt Mode for the First Parallel Port Available Runlevels 9. Example time line configuration 6.
Various IPv6 Prefixes Commands for Managing sfcbd Global Section in smb. Access Rules Additions to the Configuration File Writing IP Addresses Output of the Mount Command Entry to Disable Logging Output of the route -n Command Basic VirtualHost Configuration Output of the Command ping Zone Entry for example. Firewall Configuration: Option 15 Sample IPv6 Address Reverse Lookup Linking IP Addresses to the Netmask Name-Based VirtualHost Directives Forwarding Options in named.
Output of the ifconfig Command Example udev Rules A breakdown of available device technologies. Take care for power conservation and for the integration of different devices into a changing network environment.
This guide contains the following: It offers a wide range of network services. As such Mobile Computers Laptops. It assumes that a full requirements audit has been done and the installation has been requested or that a test installation. This guide does not cover the process of ensuring that SUSE Linux Enterprise offers proper compatibility with your enterprise's application software or that its core functionality meets those requirements.
The boot loader and boot procedure information assists you in understanding how your Linux system works and how your own custom scripts and applications may blend in with it. Also get in touch with the background technologies that provide the needed functionality. System Learn more about the underlying operating system by studying this part.
This part introduces a few of them. Also find a compilation of the most frequent problems and annoyances and learn how to solve these issues on your own. Choose from various approaches. Many chapters in this manual contain links to additional documentation resources. For an overview of the documentation available for your product and the latest documentation updates.
Administration Guide Covers system administration tasks like maintaining. This includes additional documentation that is available on the system as well as documentation available on the Internet.
Shows how to make use of the product inherent security software like AppArmor which lets you specify per program which files the program may read. Troubleshooting Provides an overview of where to find help and additional documentation in case you need more information or want to perform specific tasks with your system. The following manuals for users and administrators are available for this product: Linux Audit Quick Start Gives a short overview how to enable and configure the auditing system and how to execute key tasks such as setting up audit rules.
The manual guides you through the basic steps of auto-installation: It features an overview of the various fields of application and installation types of each of the platforms supported by SUSE Linux Enterprise Server as well as a short description of the installation procedure. In addition to the comprehensive manuals.
The guide also contains detailed information about requirements. Find how to inspect and optimize your system by means of monitoring tools and how to efficiently manage resources. Also contains an overview of common problems and solutions. Make sure to include the document title. To report errors or suggest enhancements. To report bugs for a product component. Feedback Several feedback channels are available: Bugs and Enhancement Requests For services and support options available for your product.
Use the User Comments feature at the bottom of each page in the online documentation or go to http: User Comments We want to hear your comments about and suggestions for this manual and the other documentation included with this product. Documentation Conventions The following typographical conventions are used in this manual: Find the latest documentation updates at http: Mail For feedback on the documentation of this product. Automatic Online Update 2. For More Information 3. This paragraph is only relevant for the architectures amd The arrows mark the beginning and the end of the text block.
Contents 1. This paragraph is only relevant for the architectures System z and ipseries. This is a reference to a chapter in another manual. Installing Patches For More Information Chapter 1. One-time VNC Sessions 5. Remote Access with VNC 5. If you have registered your product during the installation.
Automatic Online Update Novell offers a continuous stream of software security updates for your product. Persistent VNC Sessions 6. Grouping And Combining Commands 7. By default. Working with Common Flow Constructs 7. Installing or Removing Software. This chapter covers the alternative tool for updating software packages: YaST Online Update.
RPM—the Package Manager 7. To add or remove repositories. Both interfaces differ in look and feel but basically provide the same functions. Optional Updates Fix non-security relevant issues or provide enhancements. Recommended Updates Fix issues that could compromise your computer.
Error on Accessing the Update Catalog If you are not able to access the update catalog. This access will be denied once the subscription ends. The Novell Customer Center is available at http: To open the dialog. In case of an access denial to the update catalog you will see a warning message with a recommendation to visit the Novell Customer Center and check your subscription. The following sections provide a brief description of each.
Novell provides updates with different relevance levels: Security Updates Fix severe security hazards and should definitely be installed.
Each list entry in the Summary section consists of a symbol and the patch name. You can change the view of the Summary section by selecting one of the following options from Show Patch Category: Needed Patches default view Non-installed patches that apply to packages installed on your system. Unneeded Patches Patches that either apply to packages not installed on your system. The patch will be visible in the list until you mark it for installation. Actions required by Security and Recommended patches are automatically preset.
In this case a check mark is displayed in front of the patch summary. Figure 1. If you install an up-to-date package from a repository other than the update repository.. Autoupdate and Autodelete. For an overview of the possible symbols and their meaning. The patches are sorted by security relevance: The Online Update window consists of four sections.
These actions are Autoinstall.. If all available patches are already installed. Click an entry in the upper right section to view details about the respective package that is included in the patch. The upper right section lists the packages included in the selected patch a patch can consist of several packages. To filter patches according to their security relevance. Select an entry in the Summary section to view a short Patch Description at the bottom left corner of the dialog..
Optional or All patches. The box in the bottom left-hand section shows the number of both available and already installed patches and lets you toggle the view to either Available or Installed patches.
Select an entry in the Package listing section to view a patch description and further details at the bottom right corner of the dialog. They fix severe security hazards and prevent your system from exploits.. Most patches include updates for several packages. You may also revert patches that have been applied to the system.
Use the respective filters and views the GTK and Qt interfaces provide. Procedure 1. Select or deselect patches according to your needs and wishes by activating or deactivating the respective check box GNOME or by right-clicking the patch and choosing the respective action from the context menu KDE.
Installing Patches The YaST Online Update dialog allows you to either install all available patches at one go or to manually select the patches that you want to apply to your system. For details..
You can also choose to Install optional patches—security and recommended patches are already preselected for installation. Click on a patch entry to open a row with detailed information about the patch in the bottom of the window. Here you can see a detailed patch description as well as the versions available.
To first modify the selection of patches that you want to apply: Always Apply Security Updates However. To automatically apply all new patches except the optional ones that are currently available for your system. They will be applied automatically once you click Accept or Apply. Choose whether to update Daily. Activate Automatic Online Update. After the installation is complete. To confirm your selection and to apply the selected patches. Select if you want to Skip Interactive Patches in case you want the update procedure to proceed fully automatically.
Your system is now up-to-date. To use the respective module. Some patches.. After installation. Configuring the Automatic Online Update 1. Disabling deltarpms By default updates are downloaded as deltarpms. Since rebuilding rpm packages from deltarpms is a memory and CPU time consuming task. Gathering System Information for Support Contents 2.
Otherwise you might miss important patches.
Only patches of the selected categories will be installed. Confirm your configuration with OK. For More Information Abstract In case of problems. This report will help Novell Technical Services to assist or locate the issue you reported. To filter the patches by category such as security or recommended. Chapter 2.
Overview To automatically install all packages recommended by updated packages. Skipping Patches If you select to skip any packages that require interaction. This tool will collect information about the system such as: The command is provided by the package supportutils which is installed by default. To automatically accept any license agreements. Others will be skipped.
Open the URL http: Start YaST. Select an option from the radio button list. After the process is finished. Review the data collection. Finish the operation with Next. If you want to upload to the Novell customer center. Proceed with Next. Use the command line utility supportconfig. Continue with Next. The YaST Support module calls supportconfig to gather system information. Click on Create report tarball. Enter your contact information. Use your service request number from Step 1 and enter it into the text field labeled Novell 11 digit service request number.
Open the Support module. Use the YaST Support module. It is a tool that gathers system information and allows you to upload the collected data to another server for further analysis.
The information gathering begins. If you want to test it first. There are two ways to use Novell Support Link: Save your tarball. The following would gather the minimum supportconfig information and LVM only. This gathers the default system information. This is especially useful in high logging environments or after a kernel crash when syslog rotates the logs after a reboot.
Both options. Display a list of all options with supportconfig --help or refer to the man page. While troubleshooting a problem.. Using Supportconfig Directly To use supportconfig from the command line.
For example. Common Supportconfig Options The supportconfig utility is usually called without any options.. Open a shell and become root. Wait for the tool to complete the operation. Collect already rotated log files.
The following list gives a brief overview of the more common cases: Use the minimal option -m to reduce the size of the information being gathered: After making changes. Run supportconfig without any options. Finish with Next.
Procedure 2. For the normal FTP upload target. The following examples will assume the service request number is Privacy Statement Novell treats system reports as confidental data. Review the data collection and use Remove from Data to remove any files you want excluded from the tarball uploaded to Novell.
Confirm you are using one of the Novell upload targets described above and the Upload log files tarball into URL is activated. Please see our privacy commitment for details at http: Select the Use custom radio button. Click Finish. When you experience a server issue and would like Novell's assistance. Information gathering starts. For the secure upload target. Both YaST and command line methods are described. Write down your 11 digit service request number.
Once the tarball is in the incoming directory of our FTP server.. This is an intentional behavior to save time consuming redraws when browsing through the navigation tree. Keys like Alt or Shift can also be occupied by the settings of the terminal. For example, Esc H replaces Alt - H. First press Esc , then press H. Restriction of Function Keys The F keys are also used for functions. Certain function keys might be occupied by the terminal and may not be available for YaST. However, the Alt key combinations and function keys should always be fully available on a pure text console.
To get a list of YaST command line options, enter: yast -h 3. Start the network module, for example, with yast lan. If you need a command-line based software management utility with functionality beyond what YaST provides, consider using zypper.
This new utility uses the same software management library that is also the foundation for the YaST package manager. The basic usage of Zypper is covered in Section 6. Not all modules have command line support. Chapter 4. Requirements 4. Using Snapper to Undo System Changes 4. Manually Creating and Managing Snapshots 4. Limitations 4.
Frequently Asked Questions 4. Abstract Being able to do file system snapshots providing the ability to do rollbacks on Linux is a feature that was often requested in the past. Snapper, in conjunction with the Btrfs file system or thin-provisioned LVM volumes now fills that gap. Btrfs, a new copy-on-write file system for Linux, supports file system snapshots a copy of the state of a subvolume at a certain point of time of subvolumes one or more separately mountable file systems within each physical partition.
Snapper lets you manage these snapshots. Snapper comes with a command line and a YaST interface. Before and after running a YaST module or zypper, a snapshot is created. Snapper lets you compare the two snapshots and provides means to revert the differences between the two snapshots. The tools also provide system backups by creating hourly snapshots of the system subvolumes. Requirements Since Btrfs is the only file system on SUSE Linux Enterprise Server supporting snapshots, it is required on all partitions or subvolumes you want to snapshot.
Snapshots and Disk Space When a snapshot is created, both the snapshot and the original point to the same blocks in the file system.
So, initially a snapshot does not occupy additional disk space. If data in the original file system is modified, changed data blocks are copied while the old data blocks are kept for the snapshot. Therefore, a snapshot occupies the same amount of space as the data modified. So, over time, the amount of space a snapshot allocates, constantly grows.
As a consequence, deleting files from a Btrfs file system containing snapshots may not free disk space! Note: Snapshot Location Snapshots always reside on the same partition or subvolume that has been snapshotted.
As a result, partitions containing snapshots need to be larger than normal partitions. The exact amount strongly depends on the number of snapshots you keep and the amount of data modifications. As a rule of thumb you should consider using twice the size than you normally would. Older snapshots occupy more space than recent ones.
Displaying the amount of disk space a snapshot allocates is currently not supported by the Btrfs tools. Doing an upgrade from one service pack to another results in snapshots occupying a lot of disk space on the system subvolumes, because a lot of data gets changed package updates. Manually deleting these snapshots once they are no longer needed is recommended.
For this purpose, Snapper is configured to create a pair of snapshots before and after each run of zypper and YaST.
Snapper also lets you restore system files that have been accidentally deleted or modified. Hourly backups are created for this purpose. By default, automatic snapshots as described above are configured for the root partition and its subvolumes.
Every time you start a YaST module or a Zypper transaction, two snapshots are created: a pre-snapshot capturing the state of the file system before the start of the module and a post-snapshot after the module has been finished.
Comparing two snapshots the tools also allow you to see which files have been changed.