1 Basic Techniques - Morihiro terney.info Although Aikido is often thought of as a nonviolent, noncompetitive martial art, Kisshomaru Ueshiba - Spirit of Aikido. Founder's son on aikido. Identifier: KisshomaruUeshibaArtOfAikido. Identifier-ark: ark://t14n30t4p. Ocr: ABBYY FineReader Ppi: Kisshomaru, who later continued his fathers teaching of Aikido). Ueshiba Morihei returned to Ayabe to his former life, teaching martial arts and farming.
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Interview with Morihei Ueshiba and Kisshomaru Ueshiba se-language book “ Aikido” by Kisshomaru Ueshiba, Tokyo, Kowado, , pages It. Ueshiba Kisshomaru - The Spirit of Aikido - Download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read online. Ueshiba Kisshomaru - The Spirit of Aikido. If beginners had martial arts training or a strong background in Ueshiba (the founder of Aikido) and Kisshomaru publication/terney.info
Holding the Center : Sanctuary in a Time of Confusion. Frog Ltd. Hennen, Larry. Aiki Toolbox: Exploring the Magic of Aikido. Higashi, Nobuyoshi . Unique Publications. Koryu Aikido. Hoffer, Bruno.
Le grand livre des arts martiaux et des sports du combat. Homma, Gaku . Aikido Sketch Diary : Dojo Days. Yutaka Kikuchi, translator. Emily Busch, translator.
Hoppe, Stephanie T. Women warriors on the integration of body, mind and spirit. Park Street Pr. Both aikido instruc- tors and students must dedicate themselves to truly mastering the art, plumb its depths, dispel distortions, and present its authentic form.
Otherwise, the disappointment of interested people will be great and irreversible. This possibility holds true in Japan as well as in the foreign countries where aikido is rapidly growing. As far as aikido techniques are concerned, there may be only minor problems, but the philosophical and spiritual basis of aikido poses an entirely different challenge.
Real problems may arise unless we return to the original teaching of the Founder and clarify the essential meaning of aikido as fundamentally a matter of the spirit. At the heart of aikido as a spiritual way is ki, the world-forming energy which also lies at the core of each human being, waiting to be 20 realized and actualized. While the concept of ki originates with the seminal thinkers of ancient China-Lao-tzu, Chuang-tzu, Huai-nan- tzu, as well as Kuan-tzu, Ch'eng-tzu, Confucius and Mencius-it is not limited to them, for it underwent changes in the evolution of history.
The connotation of ki takes on variegated colorings and nuances in the different cultural spheres and time periods of East Asian civiliza- tions. In Japan after this concept was introduced it interacted with the native ethos to form a distinctive world-view, encompassing attitudes to nature, life, death and so on. The original idea of ki developed as a metaphysical principle in a number of Chinese schools of thought. Ki was, for example, the essen- tial principle of harmony, and it was the source of creativity expressed in the form of yin and yang Lao-tzu , the vital fullness of life Huai- nan-tzu , the courage arising from moral rectitude Mencius , the divine force that penetrates all things Kuan-tzu.
As a term, it was never clearly defined. Sometimes it was equated to empty space the void or nothingness Lao-tzu , at other times to the formative energy emerging out of chaos Chuang-tzu. It was regard- ed by some philosophers as a dualistic principle that structures the universe.
That is, the light aspect of ki became Heaven, and the heavenly ki became the sun. Its heavy aspect coagulated to become Earth, and from the earthly ki was born Water. This dualism evolvedinto the ki operating as yin and yang, darkness and lightness, from which arose the Five Elements Theory and the divinations of the Book of Changes. In the Five Elements Theory, Wood and Fire belong to ki as the light principle, Metal and Water to ki as the dark principle, and Earth is said to be found between the two.
Climatic changes and human for- tunes could be predicted by the ebb and flow, the harmonious and an- tagonistic workings of the Five Elements. In the Book of Changes the unbroken line - symbolized yang and the broken line -- yin, and their various combinations produced the eight trigrams-creative, recep- tive, arousing, gentle, abysmal, clinging, keeping still and joyous. They could be read for divination purposes and various events predicted. Broadly speaking, the principle of ki was associated with the working of yin-yang dualism.
This primarily metaphysical principle of ki was introduced into Japan in the Nara and Heian periods and generally 21 upheld, but the introduction of Buddhist thought from India via China affected its meaning, due particularly to the idea of karmic retribution. More significantly, the idea of ki combined with indigenous views of nature, and it was taken to be the force responsible for the cyclical process of growth, budding, flowering and the withering of plants and trees.
Many compound words were formed that are intimately connected with nature's ways: cultivating energy, yo-ki; recovering life, kai-ki; spirit-energy, sei-ki and so on. It was also identified with a powerful, demonic agent that controlled love and hate in interpersonal relation- ships, and it was incorporated into the magico-religious use of yin-yang, the Five Elements Theory and divination, which are frequently men- tioned in Heian literature, such as the Tale of Genji.
The most dramatic changes in the interpretation and application of kr began to take place with the rise of the samurai class from the late Heian period.
The process continued throughout the Kamakura and Muromachi periods, the ensuing century of civil wars, and into the Azuchi-Momoyama period , reaching its apex in the early Tokugawa The samurai who faced constant threats of death in an age of warfare understood ki in terms of courage, shi-ki; will power, i-ki; vigor, gen-ki; and bravery, yu-ki. They were also concerned with equanimity, hei-ki, and conserving energy, shu-ki, which attempt to prolong breathing, ki-soku, as a matter of life and death.
It was during the Tokugawa shogunate, when Japan experienced almost years of relative peace, that great debates on bujutsu were held to provide a theoretical basis for the art of swordsmanship and to prevent its becoming degenerate and lifeless.
Those discussions yield- ed a logical, theoretical treatment of ki, as well as an appeal to its philosophical and spiritual possibilities.
In pursuing the latter point a return to the ideas of yin and yang occurred. For example, in an important text on classical jujutsu, which is closely connected to modern judo and has affinities with aikido, we find the following statement taken from Densho chilshaku, a work of the Kito School.
Kit6 means rising and falling. Rising is the form of yang, and falling is the form of yin. One wins by recourse to yang and wins 22 by recourse to yin When the enemy shows yin, win by yang. When the enemy is yang, win by yin To make the mind powerful, utilizing the rhythm between strength and suppleness in technique shows mastery. To discard one's strength and win by using the enemy's strength works because of ki as taught in our school.
When one discards strength, one returns to the fun- damental principle. If one does not rely on strength but uses ki, the enemy's strength will rebound and he will fall by himself. This is the meaning of winning by using the enemy's strength. You should carefully consider this matter.
In brief, the weak overcomes the strong. To illustrate the importance of ki in the art of swordsmanship we cite the following quotations as being representative views. Opportunity for victory is dependent on ki. Carefully observ- ing the enemy's ki and moving in accord with it is called keep- ing the opportunity for victory before you. In Zen they speak of the "opportunity for manifesting Zen," referring to the same thing.
The ki that is hidden and not revealed presents the op- portunity for victory. Heih6 kaden sho In all matters related to the arts, including martial arts, superiori- ty is determined through training and practice, but true excellence is dependent on ki. The grandeur of heaven and earth, the brilliance of sun and moon, the changing of the seasons, heat and cold, birth and death, are all due to the alternation of yin and yang.
Their subtle working cannot be described by words, but within it all things fulfill life by means of ki.
Ki is the origin of life, and when ki takes leave of form, death ensues. Tengu geijutsu ron Let us now turn to the understanding of ki as conceived by Master Ueshiba.
His view of ki, born out of an intuitive insight into the work- ing of the universe, was expressed in pithy, concise language. It is sometimes difficult to grasp his main points, but a meditative reading of what he has to say may give us some clue to his understanding of. Two of his statements on ki are: 23 Through budo I trained my body thoroughly and mastered its ultimate secrets, but I also realized an even greater truth.
That is, when I grasped the real nature of the uniyerse through budo, I saw clearly that human beings must unite mind and body and the ki that connects the two and then achieve harmony with the activity of all things in the universe. By virtue of the subtle working of ki we harmonize mind and body and the relationship between the individual and the universe.
When the subtle working of ki is unhealthy, the world falls into confusion and the universe into chaos. The harmoniz- ing of a united ki-mind-body with the activity of the universe is critical for order and peace in the world.
Master Ueshiba further elaborates on the operation of ki and its necessity for a well-balanced life. The subtle working of ki is the maternal source that affects delicate changes in breath. It is also the source of martial art as love. When one unifies mind and body by virtue of ki and manifests ai-ki [harmony of ki], delicate changes in breath-power occur spontaneously and waza [proper technique] flows freely. The change in breath, connected with the ki of the universe, interacts and interpenetrates with all of life.
At the same time the delicate breath-power enters into all corners of one's body. Entering deeply, it fills one with vitality, resulting naturally in variegated, dynamic, spontaneous movements. In this way the whole body, including the internal organs, becomes united in heat, light and power.
Having accomplished unification of mind and body and being in oneness with the universe, the body moves at will offering no resistance to one's intentions. Master Ueshiba's conclusion about ki, reached after 3: lifelong quest for the truth of budo through years of martial discipline and training, becomes increasingly subtle and spiritual as he continues: The delicate changes in breath cause subtle movements of ki in the void.
Sometimes movements are fierce and potent, at other times slow and stolid. By such changes one can discern the degree 24 of concentration or unification of mind and body. When con- centration permeates mind and body, breath-power becomes one with the universe, gently and naturally expanding to the utter limit, but at the same time the person becomes increasingly self- contained and autonomous.
In this way when breath works together with the universe, the unseen spiritual essence becomes a reality within oneself, enfolding and protecting and defending the self. This is an introduction to the profound essence of ai-ki. Ki, then, is twofold: the unity of individual-universe and the free, spontaneous expression of breath-power. The former inherits the idea of ki held by the ancient Chinese thinkers, but it is to be realized through unifying ki-mind-body in aikido training.
In the process of training oneness with the ki of the universe is achieved spontaneously without effort. The latter part of the statement teaches that a person's breath controls his thoughts and his bodily movements. When the rhythms of breath and aikido movements become harmonized with the rhythm of the universe, one's mind and body become centered and every move- ment becomes a spherical rotation.
The reason for Master Ueshiba's emphasis on the dual functioning of unity and spontaneous expression is that he saw the essence of ki as being the essence of his budo. With this as the starting point, our responsibility is to continue clarifying the ki that is central to aikido and further develop its significant implications for contemporary life.
The Power of Ki An aikido student who has trained regularly should have some personal insights into ki, even if he may not know its historical and theoretical derivation. As outlined in the previous section, ki is an ancient princi- ple which forms the crux of East Asian philosophies and religions.
But variations exist in its concrete manifestation in a person, depending on individual temperament, aspiration, physical attributes, experience and background. Thus, differences in the way students feel and think about ki are inevitable.
We may hear students say that ''It is a feeling of some kind of energy coming"forth from mind and body in harmony. Each answer is valid in the sense that it is a true reaction gained through actual personal experience. And being a direct expression of a felt condition, it contains a certitude that cannot be denied. If this is so, the differences in response are negligible, and the great variety attests to not only the difficulty in precisely defining ki but shows that the depth and breadth of ki defy coverage by a single definition.
While the subject of ki may be treated historically and philosophical- ly, our interest is to approach it through personal experience, training and realization in a martial art. When ki is actualized and confirmed through personal involvement, it leads to the development of character and the wholeness of a person. At the same time, this pursuit of ki leads inevitably to an appreciation of its philosophical and spiritual basis. Ultimately, the proper understanding of ki must be experiential as well as intellectual, and intellectual as well as experiential.
This fact is taken into serious consideration when we develop the training cur- riculum: its method, content and order. In aikido training the ultimate goal is the unity of ki-mind-body, but its uniqueness is that movements with the flow of ki are stressed from the very beginning.
Special attention is paid to experiencing and master- ing ki, so that all movements will be characterized by spherical rota- tion. Students are taught the unity of ki-mind-body not only through movement, but even prior to any practice of waza.
They are taught, for example, that ki is concentrated in a stable and strong centrum, the point that is the natural center of gravity two inches below the navel when a person stands in a relaxed posture. When ki flows through arms, hands and fingertips, the hands become a weaponless weapon called te-gatana, which means literally "sword-hand.
The main point is that unlike other forms of martial arts, including all classical and modern budo which teach the oneness of mind- 26 technique-body, aikido stresses ki rather than technique and trains ki- mind-body.
Of course, waza is consistently practiced but the degree of mastery is dependent upon the degree of unifying ki-mind-body, and this is the sole basis of evaluating proficiency in aikido.
As we have tried to show, ki is to be understood both experientially and intellectually, but there is another aspect that cannot be neglected by people living in an age of science.
The original source of ki is to be found in the world view of ancient China, intimately interwoven with the myth of world formation, and our question is, how does this notion of ki fit into a scientific world view? When ancient people used their intellectual and imaginative powers to discern the workings of the universe, the source of all life, they came up with the concept of ki.
They also tried to explain the order in nature and the cosmos by this principle.
The validity of ki as the generative source of life still remains, I believe, but it was deduced from observa- tion of the knowable world and did not involve the unknowable umverse.
In our age of science the unknowable universe has become much closer to us, and in fact through scientific means we can actually see and touch what was once fat beyond our grasp, even though it may still be but a small portion of the vastness of space. It may be impor- tant for us to seek the relationship between ki and the modern scien- tific view of the universe, because a scientific explanation may be necessary for the acceptance of ki by contemporary people.
Scientific knowledge of the universe began in the late 17th century with Isaac Newton and his theory of universal gravitation as a fun- damental law of nature.
Since then immense changes and rapid developments have taken place, bringing us to the point where the ex- ploration of the universe has become a routine matter. The modern space era began with Yuri Gagarin, the Russian cosmonaut, who cir- cled the earth on April 12, , in his spaceship, Vostok I. An intense rivalry grew up between Russian and American scientists in space explo- ration, and on July 20, , American astronauts succeeded in land- ing on the moon in their Apollo 11 spacecraft, with Neil Armstrong becoming the first human being to set foot on the moon.
The third U. The exploration of the universe continues with space shuttles and satellites, and it may be interesting to see how this will relate to our understanding of ki, but that is a task for the future. For our pur- poses, however, some preliminary remarks may be in order. In a special preface for the Japanese edition, Dr. Sagan wrote: It was Pythagoras of ancient Greece who first used the word cosmos to describe an orderly universe that human beings could understand.
There is definitely an order that reigns in the uni- verse. This does not mean that everything is in perfect order, because in the light of scientific research we know the universe is constantly changing and much chaos exists. Nevertheless, the cosmos in which order and confusion coexist has infinite beauty.
Our bodies are made up of the dust from the stars. The same atoms that constitute the stars make up our bodies. We are children of the stars, and the stars are our home. Maybe this is the reason we are entranced with the stars and the Milky Way. He continues, The nitrogen contained in our genes, the calcium in our teeth, the iron in our blood and the carbon in our apple pie were made in the cosmic kitchen that is the star. Our bodies are made up of the particles that constitute the stars.
Indeed, in a very pro- found sense we are children of the stars.