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These processors are known as subscalar processors. These instructions can be re-ordered and combined into groups which are then executed in parallel without changing the result of the program.
This is known as instruction-level parallelism. Advances in instruction-level parallelism dominated computer architecture from the mids until the mids.
These processors are known as scalar processors. The Pentium 4 processor had a stage pipeline. Most modern processors also have multiple execution units. These processors are known as superscalar processors.
Instructions can be grouped together only if there is no data dependency between them. Scoreboarding and the Tomasulo algorithm which is similar to scoreboarding but makes use of register renaming are two of the most common techniques for implementing out-of-order execution and instruction-level parallelism. Main article: Task parallelism Task parallelisms is the characteristic of a parallel program that "entirely different calculations can be performed on either the same or different sets of data".
Task parallelism involves the decomposition of a task into sub-tasks and then allocating each sub-task to a processor for execution.
The processors would then execute these sub-tasks concurrently and often cooperatively. Task parallelism does not usually scale with the size of a problem. Distributed shared memory and memory virtualization combine the two approaches, where the processing element has its own local memory and access to the memory on non-local processors. Accesses to local memory are typically faster than accesses to non-local memory.
A logical view of a non-uniform memory access NUMA architecture. Processors in one directory can access that directory's memory with less latency than they can access memory in the other directory's memory.
Computer architectures in which each element of main memory can be accessed with equal latency and bandwidth are known as uniform memory access UMA systems. Typically, that can be achieved only by a shared memory system, in which the memory is not physically distributed. A system that does not have this property is known as a non-uniform memory access NUMA architecture.
Distributed memory systems have non-uniform memory access. Computer systems make use of caches —small and fast memories located close to the processor which store temporary copies of memory values nearby in both the physical and logical sense. Parallel computer systems have difficulties with caches that may store the same value in more than one location, with the possibility of incorrect program execution. These computers require a cache coherency system, which keeps track of cached values and strategically purges them, thus ensuring correct program execution.
Bus snooping is one of the most common methods for keeping track of which values are being accessed and thus should be purged. Designing large, high-performance cache coherence systems is a very difficult problem in computer architecture. As a result, shared memory computer architectures do not scale as well as distributed memory systems do.
Therefore, many researchers have tried plementations of the sequential explicit and im- pages to develop parallel numerical algorithms that plicit methods discussed in Chapters 3 and 4. An Introduction to Parallel Computational methods.
Although these methods are not new, Fluid Dynamics is a step in the right direction. This is a good introduction to the subject. The authors the problems and implementations.
It refers the provide an overview of the grid methods—finite- reader to the references of these case studies for difference, finite-volume, finite-element, and more details. Readers will require at least a conjugate-gradient methods.
There are also brief linear algebra course and two semesters of cal- explanations and good comparisons of these culus, but no experience in parallel computation methods, with references to consult for in-depth is necessary. An Introduction to Parallel Computational Chapter 4 gives an overview, with brief com- Fluid Dynamics is more a reference than a text.
It is not suit- Chapter 5 introduces parallel-computing able for computer science or computer engi- concepts, starting with the main components of neering students. This book relies heavily on a von Neumann computer system: the CPU, references.
This division is can be found in science and engineering books. This chapter classifies parallel com- suitable and helpful, but the references should puter systems and discusses their topology, and be in alphabetical order. Also, the book does not basic concepts in parallel computing such as list important references, such as the research speedup, efficiency, scalability, and load balanc- on conjugate-gradient methods, and does not ing.
The authors give an adequate review and jus- mention the new book, Scientific Computing, An tification of the materials presented in this chap- Introduction with Parallel Computing by Gene H. Ortega, Academic Press, mention scalable speedup. This very important Levin, Eurosof t Inc. This textbook on parallel scientific computing lar scientific numerical algorithms previously Numerical Recipes in Fort ran The Art of presents state-of-the-art material in scientific coded in Fortran 77 and present new codes Parallel Scient if ic algorithm design for modern parallel computers.
Comput ing, The first volume of this textbook published They discuss the solution of linear algebra equa- Volume 2 of Fort ran in described the art of scientific com- tions, interpolation and extrapolation problems, Numerical Recipes puting in Fortran 77 on single-processor sys- integration and evaluation of functions, com- By William H.
Press, Saul A.
Teukolsky, William T. Vetterling, tems. The first edition of the second volume puting of special functions and random num- and Brian P. Flannery was published in Volume 2 deals with Fortran 90 formation, statistical algorithms, integration of compilers, which are now widely available, and ODE and PDE, and less-numerical algorithms. ISBN is devoted to parallel scientific computing.
The By studying the presented Fortran 90 parallel book, written with support of the US National codes, readers can get good experience in For- Science Foundation, can be very useful for grad- tran 90 and in parallel programming.
To read uate and postgraduate courses and also for all this book, you only need basic skills in numer- specialists who are interested in parallel scien- ical methods and in Fortran programming.
But in scien- ern parallel scientific programming, and it can tific computing, multiprocessor systems are be used for self-instruction.
There- known recipes according to parallel-program- fore, to properly study all the routines, the ming ideas. This book has successfully solved reader must have Volume 1. First, the authors introduce For- ence list is not large and contains only about 40 tran 90, parallel programming, and parallel examples of Fortran textbooks, well-known utility functions for Fortran PC, Macintosh, and Unix computers.
Readers Next, the authors consider the most popu- can download this software by mail. Szyld, Tem ple Universit y Parallel Comput at ion: This is a well-written book suitable for classroom weather.
The fact that nowadays we can run such M odels and M et hods use at the senior, or beginning-graduate level, in programs in a fraction of that time is due in part By Selim G. Akl computer science or computer engineering. This is the topology of the Oct ober—December