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Switches and bridges provide Loop avoidance function in a network. When a switch is first initialized, its MAC data base is empty. So it forwards the received message to all its port. This is known as Flooding. IEEE The switch then transmits the frame only to the port which matches the MAC address.
Bridged and Switched networks are often designed with Redundant devices and links in order to prevent a single point of failure in a network. As the frame traverses through each switch from the port of entry to the port of exit, the highway of wires, processors, and ASICs between the ports is referred to as the switch fabric.
VLAN frame identification, or frame tagging, is a relatively new approach that was specifically developed for switched communications. The identifier is understood and examined by each switch prior to any broadcasts or transmissions to switch ports of other switches, routers, or end-station devices. When the frame exits the switch fabric, the switch removes the identifier before the frame is transmitted to the target end-station.
All this means is that the switch tags a frame with a VLAN identifier that is used only within the switch fabric itself. Virtual LANs are used to break up broadcast domains in a Layer 2 switched internetwork. Understand how to configure static VLAN assignments.
Understand frame tagging. Frame tagging is used to keep track of frames as they traverse a trunked link.
A VLAN looks like, and is treated like, its own subnet. Knowing the items in this chapter is critical for passing the exam. One layer uses logical addresses; the other layer uses physical addresses.
Although there are other Network-layer protocols, this section focuses on the implementation of Internet Protocol IP at this layer. Chapter 3 looks at Network-layer protocols including routing with IPX. Discussed later in this chapter, frames are data units at the Data Link layer layer 2 of the OSI model. The OSI defines many specifications for this layer regarding different network and protocol characteristics. This includes the physical addressing, network topology, error notification, sequencing of frames, and flow control.
If data frames arrive out of sequence, a real problem might occur if the receiving device had no way of knowing the correct sequence. This makes MAC addresses 48 bits in length. These 48 bits are expressed with 12 hexadecimal digits, as in this example: 00D0.
The vendor code would be the D, and the serial number would be A8-AD. The Network layer needs to map a logical address such as an IP address to the hardware address. Mappings can be statically created; however, mappings can be made dynamically using the Address Resolution Protocol ARP , which is discussed in the next section.
Networklayer protocol addresses allow systematical comparison of the source network address and the destination network address. Routers use learned IP address information and routing protocols to make the best determination of how to route Network-layer data packets through the network.
Packets are the data unit used at the Network layer. They are composed of the Network-layer header, encapsulated upper-layer data, and a trailer.
An IP address is made up of 32 bits of information. These bits are divided into four sections, referred to as octets or bytes, each containing one byte eight bits. Most often, IP addresses are shown in dotteddecimal form. An example would be An IPX address uses 80 bits, or 10 bytes, of data. The first four bytes show the network address, and the last six bytes always represent the node address, which is the MAC address.
An example is C The first eight hex digits C80 represent the network portion of the address.
Network addresses are assigned by a protocol running on the device. Critical Information The MAC sublayer is used to create unique addresses used by Networklayer protocols to map the network address to the interface address so data can be routed to the interface.
The first six hexadecimal digits are used to identify the manufacturer or vendor who produced the network interface. Internet local area networks An internet local area network consists of a Computer Network that interconnects computers within a limited area like office, residence, laboratory, etc. In this study guide, you will learn how the local area networks can be established using these network system. Understanding the Need for Networking What is a Network?
A network is defined as a two or more independent devices or computers that are linked to share resources such as printers and CDs , exchange files, or allow electronic communications. For example, the computers on a network may be linked through telephone lines, cables, satellites, radio waves, or infrared light beams. This layer is responsible for packet forwarding, routing through intermediate routers, recognizing and forwarding local host domain messages to transport layer layer 4 , etc.
The network operates by connecting computers and peripherals using two pieces of equipment include routing and switches.
If two devices or computers are connected on the same link, then there is no need for a network layer. Internetworking Devices used on a network For connecting internet, we require various internetworking devices. Some of the common devices used in building up Internet are.
It represents the physical connection between the workstation and network cable. Part of the NIC's is to facilitate information between the workstation and the network.
It also controls the transmission of data onto the wire Hubs: A hub helps to extend the length of a network cabling system by amplifying the signal and then re-transmitting it.
They are basically multiport repeaters and not concerned about the data at all. The hub connects workstations and sends a transmission to all the connected workstations.
Bridges: As network grow larger, they often get difficult to handle. To manage these growing network, they are often divided into smaller LANs.
These smaller LANS are connected to each other through bridges. This helps not only to reduce traffic drain on the network but also monitors packets as they move between segments. It keeps the track of the MAC address that is associated with various ports. Switches: Switches are used in the option to bridges.
It is becoming the more common way to connect network as they are simply faster and more intelligent than bridges.
It is capable of transmitting information to specific workstations. Switches enable each workstation to transmit information over the network independent of the other workstations. It is like a modern phone line, where several private conversation takes place at one time. Routers: The aim of using a router is to direct data along the most efficient and economical route to the destination device. Routers connect two or more different networks together, such as an Internet Protocol network.
Brouters: It is a combination of both routers and bridge. Brouter act as a filter that enables some data into the local network and redirects unknown data to the other network. Modems: It is a device that converts the computer-generated digital signals of a computer into analog signals, traveling via phone lines.
It determines how a computer should be connected to the Internet and how data should be transmitted between them. TCP: It is responsible for breaking data down into small packets before they can be sent on the network.