Communication is the process of transmitting information and common communication process, barriers to communication, and improving communication. for understanding, get along with others, and speak so others can under- stand in order to use the Communication Process effectively as it applies to their life. Adler and Towne describe communication as a process between at least two a message has been encoded, the next level in the communication process is.
|Language:||English, Spanish, Arabic|
|Genre:||Children & Youth|
|Distribution:||Free* [*Registration Required]|
There have been several attempts by scholars to explain the process of communication. Depending on their background and objectives, different scholars have. Communication cycle: Definition, process, models and examples. PROFESSOR JOHN VELENTZAS, DR. GEORGIA BRONI. Technological Institute of Western. This topic gives you an overview of communication and introduces you to the main elements in the communication process. It also highlights the importance of.
When a person receives a message, she responds to it by giving a reply. Otherwise, the sender can't know whether the other parties properly interpreted the message or how they reacted to it.
Feedback is especially significant in management because a supervisor has to know how subordinates respond to directives and plans. The manager also needs to know how work is progressing and how employees feel about the general work situation. The critical factor in measuring the effectiveness of communication is common understanding. Understanding exists when all parties involved have a mutual agreement as to not only the information, but also the meaning of the information.
Effective communication, therefore, occurs when the intended message of the sender and the interpreted message of the receiver are one and the same. Although this should be the goal in any communication, it is not always achieved. The most efficient communication occurs at a minimum cost in terms of resources expended. Time, in particular, is an important resource in the communication process.
For example, it would be virtually impossible for an instructor to take the time to communicate individually with each student in a class about every specific topic covered.
Even if it were possible, it would be costly. Without opportunities to ask questions and clarify the message, erroneous interpretations are possible. CBS model argues that clarity, brevity, and sincerity are the only purpose to prose discourse, therefore communication.
Lanham wrote: "If words matter too, if the whole range of human motive is seen as animating prose discourse, then rhetoric analysis leads us to the essential questions about prose style" Lanham This is saying that rhetoric and style are fundamentally important; they are not errors to what we actually intend to transmit. The process which we construct and deconstruct meaning deserves analysis. Erving Goffman sees the performance of self as the most important frame to understand communication.
Goffman wrote: "What does seem to be required of the individual is that he learn enough pieces of expression to be able to 'fill in' and manage, more or less, any part that he is likely to be given" Goffman 73 , highlighting the significance of expression.
The truth in both cases is the articulation of the message and the package as one. The construction of the message from social and historical context is the seed as is the pre-existing message is for the transmission model. Therefore, any look into communication theory should include the possibilities drafted by such great scholars as Richard A. Lanham and Goffman that style and performance is the whole process.
For example; physical noise or external noise which are environmental distractions such as poorly heated rooms, startling sounds, appearances of things, music playing some where else, and someone talking really loudly near you. Channel; the medium through which the message travels such as through oral communication radio, television, phone, in person or written communication letters, email, text messages Feedback; the receiver's verbal and nonverbal responses to a message such as a nod for understanding nonverbal , a raised eyebrow for being confused nonverbal , or asking a question to clarify the message verbal.
Message; the verbal and nonverbal components of language that is sent to the receiver by the sender which conveys an idea. Humans act toward people or things on the basis of the meanings they assign to those people or things.
As human beings, we have the ability to name things. Symbols, including names, are arbitrary signs. Linear[ edit ] This is a one-way model to communicate with others.
It consists of the sender encoding a message and channeling it to the receiver in the presence of noise. In this model there is no feedback or response which may allow for a continuous exchange of information F. Palma, In the linear communication model, the message travels one direction from the start point to the endpoint.
In other words, once the sender sends the message to the receiver the communication process ends. Many communications online use the linear communication model. For example, when you send an email, post a blog, or share something on social media. However, the linear model does not explain many other forms of communication including face-to-face conversation.
The sender channels a message to the receiver and the receiver then becomes the sender and channels a message to the original sender. This model has added feedback, indicating that communication is not a one way but a two way process.
It also has "field of experience" which includes our cultural background, ethnicity geographic location, extent of travel, and general personal experiences accumulated over the course of your lifetime. Draw backs — there is feedback but it is not simultaneous. The Interactive Model. For example, — instant messaging. The sender sends an IM to the receiver, then the original sender has to wait for the IM from the original receiver to react.
Communication theory framework[ edit ] Main article: Theory of communication Communication theory can be seen from one of the following viewpoints: Mechanistic: This view[ who? Social Constructionist Symbolic Interactionist : This view considers communication to be the product of the interactants sharing and creating meaning. The Constructionist View can also be defined as, how you say something determines what the message is.
The Constructionist View assumes that "truth" and "ideas" are constructed or invented through the social process of communication. Robert T. Craig saw the Constructionist View or the constitutive view as it's called in his article, as "…an ongoing process that symbolically forms and re-forms our personal identities. The other view of communication, the Transmission Model, sees communication as robotic and computer-like.
The Transmission Model sees communication as a way of sending or receiving messages and the perfection of that. But, the Constructionist View sees communications as, "…in human life, info does not behave as simply as bits in an electronic stream. In human life, information flow is far more like an electric current running from one landmine to another" Lanham, 7. The Constructionist View is a more realistic view of communication[ opinion ] because it involves the interacting of human beings and the free sharing of thoughts and ideas.
Daniel Chandler looks to prove that the Transmission Model is a lesser way of communicating by saying "The transmission model is not merely a gross over-simplification but a dangerously misleading representation of the nature of human communication" Chandler, 2. Humans do not communicate simply as computers or robots so that's why it's essential to truly understand the Constructionist View of Communication well.
We do not simply send facts and data to one another, but we take facts and data and they acquire meaning through the process of communication, or through interaction with others.
Systemic: This view[ who? Critical: This view considers communication as a source of power and oppression of individuals and social groups. Theories can also be studied and organized according to the ontological, epistemological, and axiological framework imposed by the theorist. Ontology[ edit ] Ontology essentially poses the question of what, exactly, the theorist is examining.
One must consider the very nature of reality. The answer usually falls in one of three realms depending on whether the theorist sees the phenomena through the lens of a realist, nominalist, or social constructionist.
Realist perspective views the world objectively, believing that there is a world outside of our own experience and cognitions. Nominalists see the world subjectively, claiming that everything outside of one's cognitions is simply names and labels.
Social constructionists straddle the fence between objective and subjective reality, claiming that reality is what we create together.
In positivist approaches to epistemology, objective knowledge is seen as the result of the empirical observation and perceptual experience. In the history of science, empirical evidence collected by way of pragmatic-calculation and the scientific method is believed to be the most likely to reflect truth in the findings.
Such approaches are meant to predict a phenomenon. Subjective theory holds that understanding is based on situated knowledge, typically found using interpretative methodology such as ethnography and also interviews.
Subjective theories are typically developed to explain or understand phenomena in the social world.