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Principles of Industrial Chemistry. Devlin, T. Textbook of Biochemistry with clinical correlation. New York Murray, R. Grant Norton dan C. Suryanarayana, Willard, L. Merret Jr. Dean dan F. Settle Jr. Windmer, H. Chichester Turton, R.
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Modern Biotechnology. Blackwell Scientific Publ. Oxford, London Harley, J. Principles and technique of Practical Biochemistry. Edmundsbury Press, London Callester Jr. Material Science and Engineering. An Introduction. Dekant, W. This round of tests helps only in second 2nd gro-up cations precipitation. The cations precipitation of the 4th group if present in the solution might occur in the absence of dilute HCl which can give wrong results. The use of sulphuric acid and nitric acid can cause to the precipitation of the 4th group cations and formation of colloidal sulphur respectively.
This group is determined by the addition of the respective salt in water and then adding dilute HCl and then follow it by adding H2S. However they form precipitates with ammonium sulphides NH4 2S in neutral or ammonical medium. They precipitate with ammonium carbonate NH4 CO3 in the pre-sence of ammonium chloride in neutral medium. The result of experiment and the presence of the respective ions are shown in the table below. It can be identified by special reaction or by flame test.
Sodium and potassium ion are from group IA Alkaline , and they have similarity. Both of them are big enough, colourless, can not reduced in solution state, so it can not react with water. Anions The methods available for the detection of anions are not as systematic as those which have been described above for cations.
No really satisfactory scheme has yet been proposed which permits the separation of the common anions into major groups, and the subsequent unequivocal separation of each group into its independent constituents; however, it is possible to detect anions individually in most cases, after perhaps a stage separation.
It is advantageous to remove all heavy metals from the sample by extracting the anions through boiling with sodium carbonate solution; heavy metal ions are Experiment Report: Analysis of Anions and Cations 19 precipitated out in the form of carbonates, while the anions remain in solution accompanied by sodium ions. The following scheme of classification of anions has been found to work well in practice; anions are divided into four groups on the basis of their reactions with di-lute hydrochloric acid and of the differences of solubilities of their barium and sil-ver salts.
However, they form precipitates with silver ions in dilute nitric acid medium. To identify nitrate ion can be done by brown ring test which can be done by adding concentrate H2S04 and then adding saturated FeSO4 little by little through the tube wall.
Tools and Material A. Tools B. Materials 1. Test tube 1. Sample NH4NO3 2. Pipettes 2. NaOH solution 3. Litmus paper 3. Saturated Na2CO3 4.
Test tube rack 4. Concentrated H2SO4 5. Filter paper 5. Saturated FeSO4 6. Tripod 7. Funnel 8. Beaker glass 9. Bunsen burner VII. Flow Chart A. Analysis Experiment Report: Analysis of Anions and Cations In this experiment we got sample number two which has form colourless crystal through random selection. First of all we are dividing the sample into three with ratio First, we are entering some of the sample into reaction tube.
Then, we adding 6 drops of NaOH to the tube, the sample turn its form from colourless crystals to colourless solution.
After that, we are put the red litmus paper above the tube and enter the half part of the litmus into the tube. After a while the red lit- mus paper changes its colour from red to blue. Preparation of Anion Test In this experiment we analysing the contents of anion in the sample number two. First we adding saturated Na 2CO3 into the sample, the sample turn its form from colourless crystal to colour solution.
Then, we heating the solution with steam bath water for about 10 minutes until white sediment formed.
Next, the heating result is filtered. We obtain colour- less solution as the filtrate which will be used for anion test. Then, we are dividing the filt-rate into 3 for testing anion contents.
C Authentication of NO3- ion. First, we adding 2 drops of concentrate H2SO4 into the test tube which contains filtrate from prepa-ration solution. Then, we are adding saturated FeSO 4 little by little through the tube wall until the brown ring is formed.
Explanation A. Here we using original sample because during the course of analysis most of the group reagents are added in the form of ammonium compound, thus by the time group V is reached, a considerable amount of ammonium ions will be built up in the test solution. The first thing that we have do is entering some of the sample into reaction tube.
After a while the red litmus paper changes its colour from red to blue because the reaction produce ammonia NH 3 gases which is base that can be identified from its smells and changing of litmus paper from re to blue. First we adding saturated Na2CO3 into the sample, the sample turn its form from colourless crystal to colour solution. Extracting anions through boiling with sodium carbonate solution has purpose to remove all heavy metals from the sample, because the heavy metal ions are precipitated out in the form of carbonates, while the anions remain in solution accompanied by sodium ions.
We obtain colour-less solution as the filtrate which will be used for anion test. In this experiment we authenticate anion NO3- in the sample number two. Then, we are adding saturated FeSO4 little by little through the tube wall until the brown ring is formed. In this experiment exothermic reaction are occur because existence of H 2SO4 and it makes the tube feels hot because the heat moves from system to surrounding.
From this experi-ment, we know that in the sample number two contain of NO3- anion.