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Understanding Comics: The Invisible Art is a non-fiction work of comics by American cartoonist Scott McCloud. . Print/export. Create a book · Download as PDF · Printable version. A page comic book about comics that explains the inner workings of the medium and examines many aspects of visual communication. Understanding. File .pdf) or read online. Guia para entender cómo colorear y escribir los textos siguiendo el estilo "DC". The DC Comic Guide to Coloring And Lettering Comics (PT-BR).pdf. Uploaded by terney.infod terney.info Uploaded by.
When the page journey is finally over, most readers will find it difficult to look at comics in quite the same way ever again. Do not attempt to operate your comic without reading this first. Understanding Comics is a landmark dissection and intellectual consideration of comics as a valid medium.
Its employment of comic art as its vehicle is brilliant. Every school teacher should have one. With a lively wit and a laser intelligence, Scott McCloud offers us a fresh new look at the comics medium. It permits the body to become impossibly dynamic.
Its coherence is no longer within itself but within the experience of the painter. More precisely, it permits the upper and lower halves of the body to rotate separately, and in opposite directions, round the sexual centre which is hidden: the torso turning to the right, the legs to the left. Berger, , p. Eisenstein, , p. La mariposa se ha ido a dormir. Es decir, cuando pone en secuencia y, al mismo tiempo, describe.
Arnheim, Rudolph. Baetens, Jan y Lefevre..
Berger, John. Ways of Seeing. Bergson, Henri. Memoria y vida. Textos escogidos por Gilles Deleuze. Madrid: Alianza. Couch, N. The Yellow Kid and the Comic Page. Varnum, Robin y Gibbons, Christina. The common use of the term machista in both the original Mujeres alteradas and its Peninsular Spanish adaptation indicates a colloquial quality to the term in these cultural contexts that arguably does not exist for comparable terms in the United States.
This is a version that may criticise gender inequalities, but prefers to do so without calling anyone names. The latter might reflect the absence of a tradition of neighbourhood grocers in many parts of the United States.
This is particularly significant because it addresses the differences in perception of class in the United States and Argentina, specifically the tendency of US-Americans to think of theirs as a classless society. From Spanish to, Well, Spanish In most of the examples discussed here, the Peninsular Spanish version has proven to be either equal or a close equivalent to the source text made in Argentina.
So how exactly are gendered narratives localised within the Peninsular Spanish con- text? When changes occur for these readers, they are most often subtle shifts. In fact, a comparison of the original Argentine and the later Peninsular Spanish version reveals few wholesale changes to the content.
Instead the difference is se- mantic. Much of the slang has been changed, for instance. For a brief comprehensive sum- mary see Reeves. Viren, Domesticating Gender in the Peninsular Spanish version.
For instance, in Spain, the present perfect is used more often than in Argentina and, as a result, in the adaptation of Mujeres alteradas for readers in Spain, instances of the simple past in the original are often replaced with the present perfect tense. Likewise, the second-person plural form ustedes is replaced by vosotros in the Peninsular translation.
The adaptation of Mujeres alteradas for readers in Spain, while most often retaining the same or similar cultural references, makes changes to the way the comic is read; by translating the Argentine dialect to a Peninsular Spanish one, localisation creates a more familiar and less foreign reading experience for the Spanish reader. What is most significant about the Peninsular Spanish localisation of Mujeres alteradas is that it exists at all.
Spaniards have long been aware of and able to read literary and popular texts in the Argentine and other Latin American di- alects, just as an audience in the United States can, with minimal effort, understand a British television show or novel. In fact, Mafalda was published in Spain without any change to its distinctly Argentine dialect. Readers of manga, she writes, want their comics to look and feel Japanese and, as a result, translations of Japanese comics are often printed right-to-left like the sources and Japanese terms are left untranslated in the text Both Mafalda and manga translations, in fact, are examples of a foreignising strategy in localisation: when the foreign qualities of a text are accentuated or exoticised as a means of adhering to expectations or anticipated expectations of foreignness on the part of the target reader.
Why was the American-English adaptation localised in the way it was— with certain phrases omitted and others substituted? And what do these decisions mean about the practices of localisation and gender in these two cultural contexts? As Pym explains, the size of a market in part drives localising trends. Those cultures or communities that are more resistant to the foreignness of a book or a video game might demand that the product be localised to their tastes and language.
It is this second factor that opens up new avenues for considering gender and localisation. In the case of the adaptation of Mujeres alteradas for Spain, one could argue that it was not just the general Peninsular Spanish market, but the specific market of female readers in Spain, that was considered sufficiently resistant to foreignness to warrant the adaptation of Mujeres alteradas to their dialect. The Last Laugh As Judith Butler reminds us, gender is never a fixed identity but instead a nego- tiated performance, a construction that takes place discursively, one that is mal- leable and mutable depending on cultural context and language.
Because the idea of a universal female experience is in itself an impossibility, any text that relies on the propagation of this myth must blind the reader to those traces of the other, be they in terms of dialect, class, sexuality or ethnicity, all of which, as markers of identity, reveal the mechanisms of that myth. The strategies translators use—or the strategies employed by teams of localisers—have the potential to reveal or conceal the performative nature of gen- der and gender narratives in a text.
As Xie Ming notes in his essay on translation in the global Chinese context, The notion of translation is [. Viren, Domesticating Gender In considering gender as both a performance and, in the globalising world, as the basis for a market group, we can begin to approach the issue of localisation and gender from a more nuanced and comprehensive perspective.
This essay has explored how competing understandings of the so-called female experience are transferred across borders. The examples cited here depict some ways that cultural differences have been neutralised—and a specific gender representation emphasised—as a means of accentuating a mythical universality of female experi- ence.
Works Cited Berman, Antoine. Lawrence Venuti. Translation Studies Reader. New York: Rout- ledge, Brasfield, Rebecca. Burundarena, Maitena. Mujeres alteradas 1. Buenos Aires: Lumen, Mujeres alteradas 2.
Todos las Mujeres alteradas. Barcelona: Random House Mondadori, Women on the Edge 1. New York: Riverhead Books, Women on the Edge 2.
Margarita Raimundez. New York: Riverhead, Butler, Judith. Gender Trouble: Feminism and the Subversion of Identity.