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D at Delhi. The biggest Mosque built by Shahjehan in located at Delhi. Red Fort of Delhi was built by Shahjehan. My life…….. A Fragment was written by Muhammad Ali Jauhar.
The institution of the Federal Ombudsman was created in 13 January The Lovely Moti Masjid is located at Agra. Behzad was a famous Persian painter. Liaquat Ali Khan was martyred by Said Muhammad. Punjab was given the status of a province on 1st April The Kaunpur Mosque incident took place on 3 August Police firing on Khaksars in Lahore took place on 19 March Muhammad bin Qasim appointed Alafi as his advisor.
Old name of Pakpatan was Ajudhan. The tomb of Babur is situated at Kabul. Akbar was born at Umar Kot. Mumtaz Mahal gave birth to 14 children. Hamdard was published by Ali Jauhar. Lord Linlithgow was the viceroy of Indian during the 2nd World War. Defense Council was formed on 1st April Liaquat Ali Khan went to America in May The Simla Agreement was signed on 3rd July Myth of Independence was written by Z.
The First Constituent Assembly was dissolved on 24th October The real name of Noor Jehan was Mahr-un-Nisa. Haren Minar was built by Jehangir. The tomb of Qutb-ud-Din Aibak is in Lahore. The site for Islamabad was selected in Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto inaugurated the new Education Policy in Bombay came to British possession through Dowry. The High Courts in Indian were established under the Act of Bande Mathram was composed in Bengal.
Who was the president of Muslim League in ? Aziz Ahmad. Mahatma Gandhi returned to India in Sir Syed Ahmad Khan retired from service in Quaid-e-Azam reached Pakistan on 7th August Col: Elahi Bakhsh. The oldest regional language of Pakistan is Sindhi. Pakistan joined the Non-Aligned Movement at Bandung in Under the Constitution of which language was declared as the National Language? Urdu and Bengali. Qutb-ud-Din Aibak died during the game of Ans.
Changez Khan came to India during the reign of Iltumish. Razia Sultana Married with Altunia. Ibn-e-Batuta visited Indian in14th Century. Aurangzeb Alamgir had: Three sons.
Tadar Mal was the revenue minister of Ans. Akbar Which of the European nations came first to South Asia? Lahore Resolution was presented by Fazl-ul-Haq. Sikandar Mirza declared Martial Law on: October Rohi Express Rohri Express Sakhi Abbas Express Sandal Express Sargodha Express Shah Lateef Express Shah Rukne Alam Express Shah Shams Express Shalimar Express Shuttle Train Subak Kharam Express Subak Raftar Express Sukkar Express Supper Express Tezgam Thal Express The island is about four kilometres in length and one kilometre in width, with an isolated rock to the southeast which has broken away.
There are caves on the south face cliffs. Astola is the only significant offshore island along the north coast of the Arabian Sea. The island is owned by the Balochistan Board of Revenue and administratively is part of the Pasni subdivision of the district of Gwadar. Between September and May of each year, Astola becomes a temporary base for mainland fishermen, to catch lobsters and oysters. From June to August, the island remains uninhabited by humans because of the rough sea and high tides.
On one of the cliffs of the island, there is a small solar-operated beacon for the safety of passing vessels.. The Persian phrase Mahi khoran, Fish eaters has become the modern name of the coastal region of Makran. On the island are the remains of an ancient Hindu temple of the goddess, Kali Devi.
The island was also known as to Hindus as "Satadip". There is also a prayer yard built for the Muslim Sufi Pir Khawaja Khizr who according to mainland legends is said to rule over the oceans and is believed to visit the area occasionally and offer prayers there. The prayer yard is used by the fishermen during the fishing season.
Wild life The isolated location of the island has helped maintain endemic life forms. The endangered Green turtle Chelonia mydas and possibly the Hawksbill turtle Eretmochelys imbracata nest on the beach at the foot of cliffs, and it is a very important area for endemic reptiles such as the viper Echis carinatus astolae.
The island is maintaining the genetic and ecological diversity of the area. The island is reported to support a large number of breeding seabirds including Larus hemprichii and several species of terns. Avifauna includes: Ardeola cinerea, Egretta gularis, Pluvialis squatarola, Numenius arquata, Limosa limosa, Calidris minutus, Larus argentatus, Larus genei, Cursorius coromandelius, Galerida cristata, Oenanthe deserti, and Prinia spp.
It comprises three small fishing islands which in the centre of the harbour of Karachi. The population of Kiamari Town is estimated to be nearly one million. There is another place named Bhit Shah located in the interior part of province of Sindh, Pakistan.
Buddo Island is also known as Dingi by local fishermen. Buddo and Bundal Islands serve as a temporary port for local fishermen. They clean their nets and dry fish on these islands. Bundal, pronounced Bhandar by local fishermen, is a twin island of Buddo and lies to its West. The annual urs of 'Yusuf Shah' which attracts thousands of coastal people to the island.
The island looked like a city during the urs. Churma and Buddo Islands are also located near Bundal Island. There is a dispute between the provincial government of Sindh and Karachi Port Trust on the ownership rights of 12, acres of land in these Islands. The islands are situated at a distance of 1. A major portion of one of the two islands has submerged beneath the sea and the land of Emaar Group would reclaim the land by using technology.
According to initial plan, about 15, houses would be constructed and would be sold to public. On December 8th contruction of the islands started. Controversy Many local NGOs, political parties and even Sindh Government have raised their voice about these development projects. It is an offshore mud volcano and rose out of the water overnight in March The island is connected to the mainland by a 12 kilometre long causeway called the Sandspit.
Manora and neighbouring islands form a protective barrier between Karachi harbour to the north and the Arabian Sea to the south. The western bay of the harbour contains endangered mangrove forests which border the Sandspit and Manora island. To the east is Karachi Bay and the beach towns of Kiamari and Clifton. History According to the British historian Eliot, parts of city of Karachi and the island of Manora at port of Karachi constituted the city of Debal.
The island was the site of a small fort constructed in the eighteenth century when the port of Karachi traded with Oman and Bahrain. The fort was stormed by the British in because of the strategic location of Karachi. Although the fort is now buried beneath the naval base, the lighthouse is a visible reminder of the British presence having been built in to assist vessels approaching Karachi harbour.
The island of Manora has served for more than 50 years as the main base of the Pakistan Navy, with berths for naval vessels located along the eastern edge of the island. The island has been governed as a military cantonment despite being located so close to Karachi. The opening of the new Jinnah Naval Base at Ormara, kilometres away, has mean't that approximately half of the naval vessels have moved away from Manora. Tourism 18 Prepared By Talib.
At the southeastern end of Manora island is the tallest lighthouse 28 m or 91 feet high in Pakistan. The island lies approximately minutes by boat ride from mainland Karachi but there are no good hotels available for an overnight stay. For this and other reasons, the Government of Pakistan has been considering developing the island into a tourist destination.
The island has been envisioned as an exotic location with natural landscapes such as the beaches and the mangrove forests, and secluded beauty with an upgrade for the lighthouse to add to the quaint feel of the island.
As part of the development plans, the KPT and all Military establishments will vacate the island and hand it over to the the companies for development. The development, so to speak, will comprise of establishing high rise hotels and apartment buildings in the areas.
Gurdwaras In Pakistan Gurdwaras are an essential part of Sikhism and form an important part of the history of Sikhism. The Punjab was only divided in when the separate nations of India and Pakistan were formed. Before this, the area covered by the two countries was one nation. The following is a list of important places in Sikh history: It is at a distance of about 1. Gurdwara Tambu Sahib, Nankana Sahib 8.
Gurdwara Nihang Singhan, Nankana Sahib Gurdwara Pehli Patshahi, Lahore Gurdwara Sri Nank Garh, Lahore Gurdwara Diwan Khana, Lahore Dharamshala Sri Guru Ramdas, Lahore Gurdwara Lal Khooh, Lahore Gurdwara Patshahi Chhevin Gurdwara Patshahi Chhevin Muzang Gurdwara Shikargarh Patshahi Chhevin, Lahore Shahid Ganj Bhai Taru Singh Gurdwara Shahid Ganj Sighnian, Lahore The glacier joins the huge Baltoro Glacier one of the largest glaciers outside polar region that flows northwest in the beginning and then turns westward.
Baltoro Glacier The Baltoro Glacier, at 57 kilometers long, is one of the longest glaciers outside of the Polar Regions. It is located in Baltistan, in the Northern Areas of Pakistan, and runs through part of the Karakoram mountain range. The Baltoro Muztagh lies to the north and east of the glacier, while the Masherbrum Mountains lie to the south.
At 8, m 28, ft , K2 is the highest mountain in the region, and three others within 20 km top 8, m. The glacier gives rise to the Shigar River, which is a tributary of the Indus River. Several large tributary glaciers feed the main Baltoro glacier, including the Godwin Austen Glacier, flowing south from K2; the Abruzzi and the various Gasherbrum Glaciers, flowing from the Gasherbrum group of peaks; the Vigne Glacier, flowing from Chogolisa, and the Yermandendu Glacier, flowing from Masherbrum.
The confluence of the main Baltoro Glacier with the Godwin Austen Glacier is known as Concordia; this location and K2 base camp are popular trekking destinations. The trough of this glacier is very wide and its central part is a vast snowfield. Small valley glaciers form icefalls where they meet the trunk glacier.
The sidewalls vary from very steep to precipitous. The glacier has carved striations on the surrounding country rocks. Moving ice has formed depressions, which serve as basins for numerous glacial lakes.
The glacier can be approached via the important Balti town of Skardu. Batura Glacier Batura Glacier 57km long is one of the largest and longest glaciers outside the polar regions. It lies in the Gojal region of the Northern Areas of Pakistan, just north of Batura 7, m and Passu 7, m massifs. It flows west to east. The lower portions can be described as a grey sea of rocks and gravelly moraine, bordered by a few summer villages and pastures with herds of sheep, goats, cows and yaks and where roses and juniper trees are common.
Biafo Glacier The Biafo Glacier is a 63 km long glacier in the Karakoram Mountains of the Northern Areas, Pakistan which meets the 49 km long Hispar Glacier at an altitude of 5,m 16, feet at Hispar La Pass to create the world's longest glacial system outside of the polar regions.
This highway of ice connects two ancient mountain kingdoms, Nagar immediately south of Hunza in the west with Baltistan in the east.
The traverse uses 51 of the Biafo Glacier's 63 km and all of the Hispar Glacier to form a km glacial route. Snow Lake, consisting of parts of the upper Biafo Glacier and its tributary glacier Sim Gang, is one of the world's largest basins of snow or ice in the world outside of the polar regions, up to one mile in depth. The Biafo Glacier is the world's third longest glacier outside of the polar regions, second only to the 70 km Siachen Glacier disputed between Pakistan and India and Tajikistan's 77 km long Fedchenko Glacier.
Campsites along the Biafo are located off of the glacier, adjacent to the lateral moraines and steep mountainsides. The first three heading up from the last village before the glacier, the thousand-year-old Askole village are beautiful sites with flowing water nearby. Mango and Namla, the first two campsites, are often covered in flowers and Namla has an amazing waterfall very near the camping area.
Biantha, the third camp site, is often used as a rest day. A large green meadow, it has a few running streams near the camp and many places to spend the day rock climbing or rappelling. Evidence of wildlife can be seen through out the trek. The Ibex and the Markhor Mountain Goat can be found and the area is famous for brown bears and snow leopards, although sightings are rare.
It flows north into the Baltoro Glacier. Its confluence with the Baltoro Glacier is called Concordia and is one of the most favorite spots for trekking in Pakistan since it provides excellent views of four of the five eight- thousanders in Pakistan. Hispar Glacier Hispar Glacier is a 49 km. This km. The extreme steepness 24 Prepared By Talib. Only the Hispar La day includes walking on the Hispar Glacier. The crossing of four major tributary glaciers from the north is most taxing, and potentially high nullah crossings can be dangerous.
The views of meter 25, foot peaks and of the snow covered cliffs and mountains on the south side of the glacier are particularly impressive. It is included in the Central Karakoram National Park. The melt water from the glacier forms Rupal River. It is the longest glacier in the Karakoram and second longest in the world's non-polar areas. It ranges from an altitude of m 18, ft.
The Siachen Glacier lies south of the great watershed that separates Central Asia from the Indian subcontinent.
The 70 km The crest of the Saltoro Ridge's altitudes range from to m 17, to 25, feet.
The major passes on this ridge are, from north to south, Sia La at m 18, ft , Bilafond La at m 17, ft , and Gyong La at m 18, ft. Conflict Zone 25 Prepared By Talib. The average winter snowfall is In spite of the severe climate, the word 'Siachen' ironically means 'the place of wild roses, a reference some people attribute to the abundance of Himalayan wildflowers found in the valleys below the glacier, but specifically refers to the thorny wild plants which grow on the rocky outcrops.
The glacier is also the highest battleground on earth, where India and Pakistan have fought intermittently since April 13, Both countries maintain permanent military personnel in the region at a height of over 6, metres. The site is a prime example of mountain warfare. The glacier's melting waters are the main source of the Nubra River, which drains into the Shyok River.
The Shyok in turn joins the Indus River. The glacier's melting waters are a major source of the river Indus, a vital water source. Global warming has had one of its worst impacts here in the Himalayas with the glaciers melting at an unprecedented rate.
The volume of the glacier has been reduced by 35 percent over the last twenty years. One report blames military activity as much as global warming. The conflict in Siachen stems from the confusion in the improperly demarcated territory on the map beyond the map coordinate known as NJ The Karachi Agreement and the Simla Agreement did not clearly mention who controlled the glacier, merely stating that from the NJ location the boundary would proceed "thence north to the glaciers.
Numerous governmental and private cartographers and atlas producers followed suit. This resulted in cartographically "awarding" the entire square kilometers square miles Siachen area to Pakistan. Indian government and military took note. Prior to neither India nor Pakistan had any permanent presence in the area. Fighting In the s and early s several mountaineering expeditions applied to Pakistan to climb high peaks in the Siachen area, and Pakistan granted them.
This reinforced the Pakistani claim on the area, as these expeditions arrived on the glacier with a permit obtained from the Government of Pakistan. Once having become aware of this in about , Colonel N. Kumar of the Indian Army mounted an Army expedition to Teram Kangri peaks in the Siachen area on the China border and just east of a line drawn due north from NJ as a counter-exercise. The first public mention of a possible conflict situation was an article by Joydeep Sircar in The Telegraph newspaper of Calcutta in , reprinted as "Oropolitics" in the Alpine Journal, London, in India launched Operation Meghdoot named after the divine cloud messenger in a Sanskrit play on 13 April when the Kumaon Regiment of the Indian Army and the Indian Air Force went into the glacier region.
Pakistan quickly responded with troop deployments and what followed was literally a race to the top. Within a few days, the Indians were in control over most of the area, as Pakistan was beaten to most of the Saltoro Ridge high ground by about a week. TIME states that the Indian advance captured nearly 1, sq. Since then Pakistan has launched several attempts to displace the Indian forces, but with little success.
The most well known was in , when an attempt was made by Pakistan to dislodge India from the area. The 26 Prepared By Talib. A special garrison with eight thousand troops was built at Khapalu. The immediate aim was to capture Bilafond La but after bitter fighting that included hand to hand combat, the Pakistanis were thrown back and the positions remained the same. Further attempts to reclaim positions were launched by Pakistan in , , and even in early , just prior to the Lahore Summit.
The attack by Pakistan SSG was significant as it resulted in 40 casualties for Pakistan troops without any changes in the positions. Current situation The Indian Army controls all of the Siachen Glacier and the three main passes of the Saltoro Ridge immediately west of the glacier, Sia La, Bilafond La, and Gyong La, thus holding onto the tactical advantage of high ground.
The Pakistanis control the glacial valley just five kilometers southwest of Gyong La. The Pakistanis have been unable get up to the crest of the Saltoro Ridge, while the Indians cannot come down and abandon their strategic high posts. A ceasefire went into effect in Even before then, every year more soldiers were killed because of severe weather than enemy firing.
The two sides have lost an estimated 2, personnel primarily due to frostbite, avalanches and other complications. Both nations have manned outposts along the glacier, with some 3, troops each. India has built the world's highest helipad on this glacier at a place called Sonam, which is at 21, feet 6, m above the sea level, to serve the area. India also installed the world's highest telephone booth on the glacier.
Both sides have been wishing to disengage from the costly military outposts but after the Kargil War in where Pakistan sent infiltrators to occupy vacated Indian posts across the Line of Control, India has backed off from withdrawing in Siachen.
India feels that Pakistan would resort to the same thing if Siachen Glacier is vacated without any official confirmation of its positions in the glacier. During her tenure as Prime Minister of Pakistan, Ms Benazir Bhutto, visited the area west of Gyong La, making her the first premier from either side to get to the Siachen region.
On June 12, , Prime Minister Manmohan Singh became the first Indian Prime Minister to visit the area, calling for a peaceful resolution of the problem. In the previous year, the President of India, Abdul Kalam became the first head of state to visit the area. India based Jet Airways plans to open a chartered service to the glacier's nearest airlink, the Thoise airbase, mainly for military purposes.
Pakistan's PIA flies tourists and trekkers daily to Skardu, which is the jumping off point for K2, the world's second highest point just 33 kilometers Vigne Glacier 27 Prepared By Talib. In its upper reaches it is also known as theChandrabhaga. It flows through the Jammu region of Jammu and Kashmir into the plains of the Punjab, forming the boundary between the Rechna and Jech interfluves Doabs in Persian.
The total length of the Chenab is approximately kilometres. The Chenab has the same place in the consciousness of the people of the Punjab, as, say the Rhine holds for the Germans, or the Danube for the Austrians and the Hungarians. It is the iconic river around which Punjabi consciousness revolves, and plays a prominent part in the tale of Heer Ranjha, the Punjabi national epic. Mirani Dam is being built on Dasht river to provide drinking water to Gwadar city.
It's source are the hills six miles south of the Sufed Koh, the source of the Kurram River, which it runs parallel too and finally joins. The Gambila is an important river for the inhabitants of the Dawar valley, as it serves to irragate a large area of land that it runs through.
It is often identified with the Vedic Sarasvati River, but it is disputed if at all Rigvedic references to the Sarasvati River refer to this river. It is a dried out river which flow during rainy season only and used to flush out flood waters of Punjab.
Estimated period at which the river dried up range, very roughly, from to BC, with a further margin of error at either end of the date-range. This may be precise in geological terms, but for the Indus Valley Civilization to BC it makes all the difference whether the river dried up in its early phase or its late phase. The identification with the Sarasvati River is based the descriptions in Vedic texts e. This however, is disputed. The Victorian era scholar C. Oldham was the first to suggest that geological events had redirected the river, and to connect it to the lost Saraswati: It originates in the Shivalik Hills of Himachal Pradesh and flows through Punjab and Haryana to Rajasthan; just southwest of Sirsa inHaryana and by the side of Tibi in Rajasthan, this seasonal river feeds two irrigation canals that extend into Rajasthan.
Near Sadulgarh Hanumangarh the Naiwala channel, a dried out channel of the Sutlej, joins the Ghaggar. Near Suratgarh the Ghaggar is then joined by the dried up Drishadvati river. The wide river bed of the Ghaggar river suggest that the river once flowed full of water, and that it formerly continued through the entire region, in the presently dry channel of the Hakra River, possibly emptying into the Rann of Kutch.
It supposedly dried up due to the capture of its tributaries by the Indus and Yamuna rivers, and the loss of rainfall in much of its catchment area due to deforestation and overgrazing. This is supposed to have happened at the latest in BCE, but perhaps much earlier.
Puri and Verma have argued that the present-day Tons River was the ancient upper- part of the Sarasvati River, which would then had been fed with Himalayan glaciers.
The terrain of this river contains pebbles of quartzite and metamorphic rocks, while the lower terraces in these valleys do not contain such rocks. In India there are also various small or middle-sized rivers called Sarasvati or Saraswati. One of them flows from the west end of the Aravalli Range into the east end of the Rann of Kutch. Many settlements of the Indus Valley Civilisation have been found along the Ghaggar and Hakra rivers.
Archaeologists have suggested that the drying up of this river may have been one of the causes for the decline of the Indus Valley Civilization. Along the course of the Ghaggar-Hakra river are many archaeological sites of the Indus Valley Civilization; but not further south than the middle of Bahawalpur district.
It could be that the permanent Sarasvati ended there, and its water only reached the sea in very wet rainy seasons. It may also have been affected by much of its water being taken for irrigation. Over sites of the Indus civilization have been discovered on the Hakra-Ghaggar river and its tributaries.
In contrast to this, only 90 to 96 Indus Valley sites have been discovered on the Indus and its tributaries about 36 sites on the Indus river itself.
Early Harappan sites are mostly situated on the middle Ghaggar-Hakra river bed, and some in the Indus Valley.
Most of the Mature Harappan sites are located in the middle Ghaggar- Hakra river valley, and some on the Indus and in the Kutch-Saurashtra. However in the late Harappan period the number of late Harappan sites in the middle Hakra channel and in the Indus valley diminishes, while it expands in the upper Ghaggar-Sutlej channels and in Saurashtra.
The abandonement of many sites on the Hakra-Ghaggar between the Harappan and the Late Harappan phase was probably due to the drying up of the Hakra-Ghaggar river. Because most of the Indus Valley sites are actually located on the Hakra-Ghaggar river and its tributaries and not on the Indus river, some archaeologists have proposed to use the term "Indus Sarasvati Civilization" to refer to the Harappan culture. In a survey conducted by M. Mughal between and , over sites were mapped along miles of the Hakra river.
The majority of these sites were dated to the fourth or third millennium BCE. Painted Grey Ware sites ca. The Ghaggar-Hakra and its ancient tributaries Satellite photography has shown that the Ghaggar-Hakra was indeed a large river that dried up probably between ca. The dried out Hakra river bed is between three and ten kilometers wide.
Recent research indicates that the Sutlej and possibly also the Yamuna once flowed into the Saraswati river bed. The Sutlej and Yamuna Rivers have changed their courses over the time. Paleobotanical information also documents the aridity that developed after the drying up of the river. Gadgil and Thapar and references therein. The disappearance of the river may have been caused by earthquakes which may have led to the redirection of its tributaries.
It has also been suggested that the loss of rainfall in much of its catchment area due to deforestation and overgrazing in what is now Pakistan may have also contributed to the drying up of the river. It has been shown by satellite imagery that at Ropar the Sutlej river suddenly flows away from the Ghaggar in a sharp turn. The beforehand narrow Ghaggar river bed itself is becoming suddenly wider at the conjunction where the Sutlej should have met the Ghaggar river. And there is a major paleochannel between the point where the Sutlej takes a sharp turn and where the Ghaggar river bed widens.
The Sutlej and the Beas and Ravi have frequently changed their courses. The Sutlej has also probably sometimes flown into the Beas, and the combined stream sometimes in the Ghaggar River. The confluence of the Ghaggar and the Sutlej was downstream from the Kurukshetra region, where most Harappan sites are located. There are however Painted Gray Ware - BC sites on the Yamuna channel, showing that the river must have flown in the present channel during this period.
The distribution of the Painted Gray Ware sites in the Ghaggar river valley indicates that during this period the Ghaggar river was already partly dried up. Scholars like Raikes and Suraj Bhan , , , have shown that based on archaeological, geomorphic and sedimentological research the Yamuna may have flown into the Saraswati during Harappan times. There are several often dried out river beds paleochannels between the Sutlej and the Yamuna, some of them two to ten kilometres wide.
They are not always visible on the ground because of excessive silting and encroachment by sand of the dried out river channels. The Yamuna may have flown into the Sarasvati river through the Chautang or the Drishadvati channel, since many Harappan sites have been discovered on these dried out river beds.
It is located in the Northern Areas of Kashmir, Pakistan. The headwater springs of the Gomal's main leg come together close to the fort of Babakarkol in Katawaz, a district inhabited primarily by Kharoti and Suleiman Khel Pashtuns.
The Gomal's chief tributary is the Zhob River. It forms the provincial boundary between Sindh and Balochistan, west of Karachi. Hub Dam is a large water storage reservoir constructed in on the Hub River in the arid plains north of Karachi.
The reservoir supplies water for irrigation in the Lasbella district of Balochistan and drinking water for the city of Karachi. It is an important staging and wintering area for an appreciable number of waterbirds and contains a variety of fish species which increase in abundance during periods of high water.
The Mahseer Tor putitora , an indigenous riverine fish found in the Hub River, grows up to 2m in length and provides for excellent angling. It is in pakistan. The Hungol valley has fantastic scenery of towering cliffs, pinnacles and buttresses, the river winding between. Some miles in length, the Hungol is Balochistan's longest river. Unlike most other streams in Balochistan which only flow during rare rains, the Hungol always has flowing water in it.
The water is crystal—clear, reflecting the incredible blue of the sky. It makes for picture—postcard scenery. Hungol river and valley are located in Hungol National Park. It is formed by the confluence of the Kilik and Khunjerab nalas gorges which are fed by glaciers. The river cuts through the Karakoram range, flowing from north to south. Indus River Indus is the longest and most important river in Pakistan and one of the most important rivers on the Indian subcontinent.
Originating in the Tibetan plateau in the vicinity of Lake Mansarovar, the river runs a course through in Jammu and Kashmir and Northern Areas, flowing through the North in a southernly direction along the entire length of country, to merge into the Arabian Sea near Pakistan's port city Karachi. The total length of the river is km miles. The river has a total drainage area exceeding , square miles.
The river's estimated annual flow stands at around cubic kilometres. Beginning at the heights of the world with glaciers, the river feeds the ecosystem of temperate forests, plains and arid countryside. It has 20 major tributaries. The Indus provides the key water resources for the economy of Pakistan - especially the breadbasket of Punjab province, which accounts for most of the nation's agricultural production, and Sindh.
It also supports many heavy industries and provides the main supply of potable water in Pakistan. The ultimate source of the Indus is in Tibet; it begins at the confluence of the Sengge and Gar rivers that drain the Nganglong Kangri and Gangdise Shan mountain ranges. The Shyok, Shigar and Gilgit streams carry glacieral waters into the main river. It gradually bends to the south, coming out of the hills between Peshawar and Rawalpindi. The Indus passes gigantic gorges 15,, feet near the Nanga Parbat massif It swiftly flows across Hazara, and is dammed at the Tarbela Reservoir.
The Kabul River joins it near Attock. The remainder of its route to the sea is in plains of thePunjab and Sind, and the river becomes slow-flowing and highly braided. It is joined by Panjnad River at Mithankot. Passing by Jamshoro, it ends in a large delta to the east of Thatta. The Indus is one of the few rivers in the world that exhibit a tidal bore. The flow of the river is also determined by the seasons - it diminishes greatly in the winter, while flooding its banks in the monsoon months from July to September.
There is also evidence of a steady shift in the course of the river since prehistoric times - it deviated westwards from flowing into the Rann of Kutch. History Paleolithic sites have been discovered in Pothohar, with the stone tools of the Soan Culture.
In ancient Gandhara, evidence of cave dwellers dated 15, years ago has been discovered at Mardan. To date, over 1, cities and settlements have been found, mainly in the general region of the Ghaggar-Hakra River and its tributaries. Among the settlements were the major urban centers of Harappa and Mohenjo-daro, as well as Lothal, Dholavira, Ganeriwala, and Rakhigarhi.
Only 90 to 96 of the over known Indus Valley sites have been discovered on the Indus and its tributaries.