Get a printable copy (PDF file) of the complete article (K), or click on a page of Human Genetics are provided here courtesy of American Society of Human. PDF | Genes influence not only human traits and behavior, but also health and [email protected] (The Indian American Chemical Society). the key role attributed to genes as determinants of human identity, health, and behavior, genetics is a scientific field about which science literacy is particularly.

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Human Genetics And Society Pdf

Genomics and Its Impact on Science and Society. The Human Human Genome Initiative, convinced that its missions would be well . in PDF format. Tutorials. Journal of Human Genetics, official journal of the Japan Society of Human Genetics, publishes original articles and reviews on all aspects of human genetics. Center for Genetics and Society logo. Follow us on Facebook Follow us on Twitter Follow us on Program on Gender, Justice, and Human Genetics [PDF].

Personal information is secured with SSL technology. Free Shipping No minimum order. Description Significant advances in our knowledge of genetics were made during the twentieth century but in the most recent decades, genetic research has dramatically increased its impact throughout society. Genetic issues are now playing a large role in health and public policy, and new knowledge in this field will continue to have significant implications for individuals and society. Written for the non-majors human genetics course, Human Genetics, 3E will increase the genetics knowledge of students who are learning about human genetics for the first time.

It should include advantages and disadvantages of knowing the result, psychological and social issues, complex appearance of the disease and difficulties to quantify probabilities, possibilities to treatment and planning of life. Prenatal test Appropriate counselling should be given.

Options, limitations and risks of test should be discussed. Psychological aspects need to be taken into account.

Medical facts and child's future should be discussed. Preimplantation test Appropriate counselling should be given. Carrier test Appropriate counselling should be given and reproductive options discussed. It does not mean abandoning patient, but personal conviction of the counsellor should not be involved. Non-directiveness is however difficult in practice and it needs to be considered case-specifically.

Autonomy Gene test should always be voluntary, only in rare cases can compulsory testing be accepted. Counselling needs to respect individual's values and culture. No pressure should be put on the counsellee and every decision should be equally accepted. Independent decision-making should be encouraged, but counsellor can assist the patient. Confidentiality Confidentiality needs to be ascertained to the patient.

Welcome to CGS

Patient's private information needs to be protected from third parties. In the situations that non-disclosure would cause severe harm, confidentiality can be breached. Right to know and to not know Right to know and to not know genetic information are both important, but sometimes, if it is in the patient's interest, the right to know overweighs the right not to know. Well-being In counselling patient needs to be taken care of.

Good should always overweigh harm. Equal access Everyone should have equal access to genetic testing and counselling. Individual's interests Interests of individual should prevail the interests of the society. Lack of trained professionals, inaccuracy of test results, risks involved in testing and costs of counselling are also problems to be solved. Ethical problems Discrimination There is a chance that there will be discrimination on basis of genes in the society. Testing can also stigmatize on basis of one's ethnic origins.

Testing for sex-selection should not be allowed in order to avoid discrimination on basis of sex. Testing creates attitudes towards disabled people, and in counselling the quality of disabled people's lives is often defined without their contribution. Eugenics needs to be seen as a threat; a rich society includes all kinds of people. Conflict between values There is often conflict between confidentiality and duty to warn and provide care and between the right to know and the right to not know.

These need to be handled sensitively.

Disclosure It is sometimes difficult to decide what information to disclose, e. Society In genetic testing the beneficence of both the individual and the society needs to be thought. Increasing range of options that gene tests bring changes society. One of these options is commercial genetic testing in connection which proper counselling should be guaranteed.

Summary of the guidelines for genetic counselling

Determinism The use of genetic information may lead to deterministic thinking, and science may be considered as godhead. Consent Informed consent should be asked always. According to the situation, it should be either in written or verbal form, written form is often advisable.

There should be a free withdrawal from the consent. Consent needs to be asked also to inform the relatives. Psychological support Psychological support should be given to patients when necessary to adjust them to the situation, to help them to cope with stress and to assure their individual decision-making.

Patient's psychological, emotional and social responses need to be taken into account. Sometimes it can be recommended to take a support person to the appointment. Referrals Referrals can be made to other professionals when necessary.

Reason for a referral can be e. Follow-up Effective systems for follow-up are needed. Counselling integral part of testing Counselling is integral part of genetic testing and more links between laboratories and clinical services are needed. What kind of information Information should be appropriate, balanced, honest, objective, full, sufficient, accurate, age-appropriate and based on up-to-date knowledge.

Understanding Patient's understanding needs to be assured. Clear language should be used and interpreters invited when needed. Written summary of information is advisable. Ways to give information It is sometimes useful to use alternative ways to distribute information, such as leaflets, videos and visual presentation. It should include advantages and disadvantages of knowing the result, psychological and social issues, complex appearance of the disease and difficulties to quantify probabilities, possibilities to treatment and planning of life.

Prenatal test Appropriate counselling should be given. Options, limitations and risks of test should be discussed. Psychological aspects need to be taken into account.

Medical facts and child's future should be discussed. Preimplantation test Appropriate counselling should be given. Carrier test Appropriate counselling should be given and reproductive options discussed. It does not mean abandoning patient, but personal conviction of the counsellor should not be involved.

Non-directiveness is however difficult in practice and it needs to be considered case-specifically. Autonomy Gene test should always be voluntary, only in rare cases can compulsory testing be accepted. Counselling needs to respect individual's values and culture.

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No pressure should be put on the counsellee and every decision should be equally accepted. Independent decision-making should be encouraged, but counsellor can assist the patient.

Confidentiality Confidentiality needs to be ascertained to the patient.

Genetics and society

Patient's private information needs to be protected from third parties. In the situations that non-disclosure would cause severe harm, confidentiality can be breached.

Right to know and to not know Right to know and to not know genetic information are both important, but sometimes, if it is in the patient's interest, the right to know overweighs the right not to know. Well-being In counselling patient needs to be taken care of. Good should always overweigh harm. Equal access Everyone should have equal access to genetic testing and counselling.

Individual's interests Interests of individual should prevail the interests of the society. Lack of trained professionals, inaccuracy of test results, risks involved in testing and costs of counselling are also problems to be solved. Testing can also stigmatize on basis of one's ethnic origins. Testing for sex-selection should not be allowed in order to avoid discrimination on basis of sex.

Testing creates attitudes towards disabled people, and in counselling the quality of disabled people's lives is often defined without their contribution. Eugenics needs to be seen as a threat; a rich society includes all kinds of people.

Conflict between values There is often conflict between confidentiality and duty to warn and provide care and between the right to know and the right to not know. These need to be handled sensitively. Disclosure It is sometimes difficult to decide what information to disclose, e. Society In genetic testing the beneficence of both the individual and the society needs to be thought.

Increasing range of options that gene tests bring changes society. One of these options is commercial genetic testing in connection which proper counselling should be guaranteed. Determinism The use of genetic information may lead to deterministic thinking, and science may be considered as godhead. Cultural norms There are different cultural norms on health. Therefore dialogue is needed especially because of the cross-border patients. Exceptionalism is not good It is not good to think that genetic testing is too exceptional.

This leads to deterministic thinking. Genetics should rather be integrated into mainstream healthcare. Focus on risk Focus of testing will be more and more on risks of illnesses and the class of healthy ill will grow. This brings more choices and freedom but ethical dilemmas also need to be thought more carefully.

Welcome to CGS

Professional practices Patient and physician's roles are changing and more interchange of information is needed. The role of counselling is increasing. Counselling needs to be evaluated and researched. Healthcare and society Genetics will be integrated more into everyday healthcare and healthcare costs need to be reviewed. Differences between countries continue to exist, as value basis is always different in different cultures. Genetic Laboratories.

Health Professionals. Person who gives genetic counselling should be a professional specialist, as he needs to convey complex information. Genetic counsellors should receive appropriate and on-going training in genetic conditions, risk assessment, psychosocial issues, bioethics, service system, communication and patient perspective. Genetic counsellor has certain duties that include e.

Genetic information is common to the whole family, which can cause conflicts. When providing information, family's cultural and ethnic background should be taken into account. Tests should be done in the best interest of the patients that cannot give informed consent, or sometimes in the health interest of their family.

Tests should be done in the best interest of the child, or sometimes in the health interest of their family. It is recommended to discuss with patients before counselling to identify their needs, to increase their understanding of counselling and to gather background information.

There should be enough of time between counselling and decision-making.

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