My immigration or citizenship application. Find application forms and guides. Use this application guide if you wish to apply for a temporary resident visa from outside Canada. Instruction Guide [IMM ]. Once you have read the guide, you can prepare your application package. You must select the country/territory. Immigration Canada. This application is made available free by. Citizenship and Immigration Canada and is not to be sold to applicants. IMM E ().

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Abstract Ficolins are innate pattern recognition receptors PRR and play integral roles within the innate immune response to numerous pathogens throughout the circulation, as well as within organs. Pathogens are primarily removed by direct opsonisation following the recognition of cell surface carbohydrates and other immunostimulatory molecules or via the activation of the lectin complement pathway, which results in the deposition of C3b and the recruitment of phagocytes. In recent years, there have been a number of studies implicating ficolins in the recognition and removal of numerous bacterial, viral, fungal, and parasitic pathogens. Moreover, there has been expanding evidence highlighting that mutations within these key immune proteins, or the possession of particular haplotypes, enhance susceptibility to colonization by pathogens and dysfunctional immune responses. This review will therefore encompass previous knowledge on the role of ficolins in the recognition of bacterial and viral pathogens, while acknowledging the recent advances in the immune response to fungal and parasitic infections. Additionally, we will explore the various genetic susceptibility factors that predispose individuals to infection. Like the collectins, ficolins consist of an N-terminal rich in cysteine residues, a collagen-like domain composed of glycine-X-Y repeats, and a neck region. However, in the ficolins, the carbohydrate-recognition domain CRD of the collectins is replaced by a C-terminal fibrinogen-like domain FBG; Figure 1 a. In their native form, ficolin monomers assemble to form trimers via their collagen-like domains, before further assembling into oligomeric bouquet-like structures of between 4 and 6 trimers. In humans, there are three ficolins termed M-, L-, and H-ficolin also referred to as ficolin-1, ficolin-2, and ficolin-3 whereas rodents only possess two, termed ficolin-A and -B, which are the orthologues of human L- and M-ficolin, respectively.

Visitors are persons who are not Canadian citizens or permanent residents of Canada, and are legally authorized to enter Canada to: visit Canada on holiday vacation , visit family, Visitors are restricted in length of stay and subject to various conditions.

Do I need a Temporary Resident Visa?

Persons who are not Canadian citizens or permanent residents of Canada may require a visa to enter Canada. The requirement for a visa also applies to temporary residents who are transiting in Canada.

Application for Visitor Visa (Temporary Resident Visa - TRV)

What is a Temporary Resident Visa? A Temporary Resident Visa TRV is an ofcial document issued by a Canadian visa ofce that is placed in your passport to show that you have met the requirements for admission to Canada as a temporary resident either as a visitor, a student, or a worker.

You cannot obtain one upon arrival in Canada. What are the requirements you must meet for a TRV? You must also: satisfy an ofcer that you will leave Canada at the end of your stay, show that you have enough money to maintain yourself and your family members in Canada and to return home, not intend to work or study in Canada unless authorized to do so, be law abiding and have no record of criminal activity, not be a risk to the security of Canada, provide any additional document requested by the ofcer to establish your admissibility, and be in good health complete a medical examination if required.

What if I was previously granted permanent resident status?

If you have ever been granted permanent residence or landed immigrant status in Canada, you may still be a permanent resident.

If you meet the requirements for a travel document, you can return to Canada as a permanent resident. Entry to Canada Important information: Entry to Canada is a privilege, not a right.

Glutathione and mitochondria

You must meet the necessary requirements and you may need a Temporary Resident Visa. Family members Your family members include your spouse or common-law partner, your dependent children and any children that are their dependent children. Spouse Refers to either of the two persons opposite or same sex in a marriage legally recognized in the country in which it took place, as well as in Canada.

Proxy, telephone, fax, internet and similar forms of marriage where one or both parties were not physically present are no longer considered as valid spousal relationships under the Immigration and Refugee Protection Regulations.

Common-law partner Refers to a person who is living in a conjugal relationship with another person opposite or same sex , and has done so continuously for a period of at least one year. A conjugal relationship exists when there is a signicant degree of commitment between two people.

This can be shown with evidence that the couple share the same home, support each other nancially and emotionally, have children together, or present themselves in public as a couple.

Common-law partners who have been in a conjugal relationship for at least one year but are unable to live together or appear in public together because of legal restrictions in their home country or who have been separated for reasons beyond their control for example, civil war or armed conict may still qualify and should be included on the application.

Dependent children Refers to the children of the applicant and those of the spouse or common-law partner, if applicable. They must be: under the age of 19 and not have a spouse or common-law partner, or 19 years of age or older and unable to be nancially self-sufcient since before the age of 19 due to a physical or mental condition. Dependent child of a Refers to children of dependent children of the applicant and those of the spouse or common-law partner, if dependent child applicable.

Do I have to apply separately for my family members? Get the instructions to complete the medical exam. When medical results are submitted up front, routine cases benefit from faster processing since we do not have to ask for them at a later date.

This is done at your own cost and does not influence the final decision on your application.

Application for Visitor Visa (Temporary Resident Visa - TRV)

If you have an upfront medical exam, you must submit proof that you completed the medical exam with your application. Failure to do so may result in processing delays.

Biometric fingerprints and photo requirements You may need to appear in person to have your fingerprints and photograph biometric information taken at a biometric collection service point. If your family members are also applying, they may need to appear in person to have their biometric information taken as well. To do this you may have to leave Canada to visit a biometric collection service point.

Find out if you need to give biometrics. Important information How often will I have to give my biometrics? You only need to give your biometrics once every 10 years. Find out if your biometrics are still valid and when they expire by using the Check Biometric Status Tool. When do I give my biometrics? If you submit your application online or by mail. You can give your biometrics after you: pay for and submit your application and biometric fees, and get a biometric instruction letter BIL which will direct you to a list of biometric collection service points you may choose from.

You are encouraged to give your biometrics as soon as possible after getting the BIL. If you submit your application in person You may be able to book an appointment in advance to give your biometrics at the same time that you submit your application at a Visa Application Centre VAC. Where do I give my biometrics? You can go to one of these official biometric collection service points to give your biometrics. We will start processing your application after we get your biometrics.

VACs also offer other services in local languages. No other services are offered only biometrics collection. You cannot submit your application at an ASC. Only certain applicants can apply for a study permit or work permit at a POE. If you try to do this you risk being unable to enter Canada.

See the list of biometric collection service points. Note: If you need to give biometric fingerprints and photo, you do not need to include paper photos with your application. Can I work or study during my stay in Canada? Visitors are not allowed to work or study in Canada unless they are authorized to do so under the Immigration and Refugee Protection Regulations.

In many cases, a work or study permit will be required. A temporary resident may also take a program of study up to six months duration without having to obtain a study permit.

Information about the parent and grandparent super visa About the super visa On November 4, , we announced a temporary pause on all new sponsorship applications for the parents and grandparents category. With the introduction of this pause, we implemented a long-term Temporary Resident Visa TRV for applicants seeking to visit their child or grandchild who is either a Canadian citizen or permanent resident.

Important information: Applicants who do not require a visa must also submit an application to the visa office. Who may apply for a super visa? To apply for the super visa you must either be the parent or grandparent of a Canadian citizen or a permanent resident of Canada. Note: You cannot include your dependent children in this application. Only your spouse or common-law partner is eligible to accompany you under this provision. What must I do to obtain a super visa? In order to obtain a super visa, you will need to apply at a visa office and provide: a letter of invitation from your child or grandchild residing in Canada.

To register or login, visit My Account. Most recent copy of the T4 or T1 Original letter from employer stating title, job description and salary Employment insurance pay stubs If self-employed, a letter from an accountant confirming annual income Proof of other sources of income pension statement, investments, etc.

You may be required to appear in person to have your biometric fingerprints and photo biometric information taken at a biometric collection service point. You will be required to undergo a medical examination. What must my child or grandchild do to meet the LICO minimum? In the letter of invitation they must calculate their family size.

This factor determines the amount of income required to provide care and support for you and your spouse, if applicable. They may use the table below to calculate the family size: Your child or grandchild counts: Themselves; Their spouse or common-law partner; Their dependent children; any person they may have sponsored previously and for whom the sponsorship agreement and undertaking are still in effect. They count the number of persons they will be supporting: You, and Your spouse or common-law partner, if applicable.

The total represents his family size. They look at the LICO in the Income Table in this guide to determine if they meet the minimum required for their family size.

Step 1. Gather documents What documents are required? Some visa offices may require additional supporting documents specific to your country. For further information, check the Application for a Visitor Visa page. Important information: If you do not provide all the requested information or documents, the processing of your application could be delayed. It should also include the name of the adult who will be responsible for the children in Canada.

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