terney.info The Innovator's Dilemma: The Revolutionary Book That Will Change the Way. Clayton Christensen provides an insightful analysis of changing technology and its importance to a company’s future success.”. “This book ought to chill any executive who feels bulletproof —and inspire entrepreneurs aiming their guns.”. The Innovator's Dilemma: When New. The innovator's dilemma: when new technologies cause great firms to fail / Clayton .. The Innovator's Dilemma is intended to help a wide range of managers.
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Full text of "The Innovators Dilemma - (terney.info) by Clayton M. Christensen terney.info (PDFy mirror)". See other formats. % \Boo Z.4// ew. The Innovator's Dilemma. When New Technologies Cause Great Firms to Fail. By Clayton M. Christensen. Harvard Business School Press. (C) President. PDF | Based on research by Professor Clayton Christensen. The Innovator's Dilemma. Conference Paper (PDF Available) · April with 4, Reads.
And who is this author that tries to enforce methods that can reduce cash deficiency and ultimately achieve long-term stability for small, medium and large companies, and what is his expertise?
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About Clayton M. He is an American-born scholar, author, economist, consultant that presently works as a professor at Harvard Business School that is an integral part of the Harvard University. Above all Mr. Clayton M. Christensen is a professor and expert in joint appointments related to Management Operations, General Management and Technologies. As a business administration — Doctor, Christensen advises companies and business to adapt to different business environments and fluctuating economies that are a severe threat to the business community.
Especially when these technologies start as timid, insecure, and doubtful teenagers? Disruptive technologies typically are first commercialized in emerging or insignificant markets. It presents things in a scientific manner with a thorough analysis of the market, the products, and the managerial decision process. The conclusions are drawn on the basis of data analysis and graph plotting. This framework describes the behavioral and decisional processes needed to survive disruptive changes.
Established companies have a hard time keeping up with the recent trends because they fail to acknowledge the necessity for revolution. Even if you dominate the market, you have to rely on innovations as a way of staying afloat. This is not the 20th century! Profit-based organizations cannot outmaneuver nor overshadow customer-centric companies. Technological evolution demands your ingenuity and creativeness to solve problems. Always being on the lookout for improvement, can give you the upper hand in a full-competitive battle.
Outdated technologies are obstructing sales, production, management, marketing, you name it. Any niche is in desperate need of modification, which can only be brought by minds who think alike. Goal-oriented individuals driven by forward-looking vision have no intentions in pursuing higher profit margins without planning.
The trick is that intuitive decisions and market planning only work for sustaining products or services — the ones based on an already existing basis.
Disruptive changes are the ones that hit the market from another angle, rendering the old products obsolete. They usually affect large organizations, rather ironically. Large companies are handicapped by their own size. Usually, disruptive technologies start as promises. Honda wanted to release a small motorcycle — 50ccs — in the United States.
By accident, some young people saw the motorcycles and thought they seemed like perfect dirt track vehicles. Nobody knew that excavators — using a then-new hydraulic system — would be great for digging up small trenches that were perfect for residential buildings until someone tried selling the product and found a market for it.
Christensen structures his book into eleven chapters and two parts. It has examples from the disk drive and mechanical excavator industries. The disk drive industry is a great guinea pig for studying disruptive versus sustaining technologies. The industry had an exponential growth, coupled with the similar evolution of computers and technologies that needed disk drives, and it makes for a very revealing read. The mechanical industry suffered a slower-paced shock with the rise of hydraulics.
Mechanical excavators switched technology and, after a while, the majority of mechanical excavator manufacturers ceased to exist. Christensen proposes Five Principles of Disruptive Technologies: Companies depend on customers and investors for resources.
Customers drive internal decision-making because companies are resource-dependent. Large companies are not interested in small emerging markets, and they wait too long. Technology supply may NOT equal market demand. Leading companies find it hard to explore areas of the market in which disruptive technologies are used in their respective beginnings.
This is due to the lower gains they obtain using a young technology, which, on top of that, has the disadvantage of a virtually non-existing market.
Thirdly, the group had a socially-distributed research capability; and fourthly, theory- building and application were combining in the co-production of new knowledge. A three phase approach with four key outcomes form the basis of the research design figure 4. To date the first two outcomes the development of a conceptual framework and a decision on the Figure 4: A survey strategy was employed for the co-creation and development of a conceptual framework for disruptive innovation.
The framework contributes to the holistic academic understanding of disruptive innovation in the context of the larger agenda of innovation strategy, whilst simultaneously adding value to the practitioner audience by explaining the multifaceted and interrelated features of disruptive innovation in a pragmatic and understandable manner. The conceptual framework surfaced further major benefits.
For example, the graphical and conceptual synthesis of a holistic understanding of the topic, led to the development of a common language that encouraged feedback and two- way connections between the academic and industrial communities. Prior to commencing the research, it was acknowledged that limited time resources available may make testing the validity of the whole conceptual framework for disruptive innovation in the context of application an unfeasible task.
A focused approach to testing some of the parts of the conceptual model has therefore been taken. The conceptual framework was used in the first part of the second phase of the research and formed the basis of 2 three-day workshops with 5 industrial collaborators and 2 research centres. The use of the framework in the workshops generated a wealth of qualitative data that allowed the shared understanding and experiences of the participants to be extrapolated and captured.
A key input to the workshops were barriers to disruptive innovation, as identified in the literature and illustrated in Figure 5. An outcome of the workshops was the prioritisation of these barriers to disruptive innovation, as faced by each of the industrial collaborators in the context of their organisation and innovation processes.
It is composed of 4 key modules: All of these elements continuously interact with the market and external environment in which the organisation operates.
If these elements are effectively managed, it is believed that disruptive innovation can be encouraged. They were asked to consider how effectively their organisations managed each of the key components of the conceptual framework in relation to innovation and disruptive innovation.
The output of the workshop along with the cases, literature survey and expert interviews revealed that organisations face a number of key barriers in pursuing disruption Figure 5. In an attempt to further understand these inhibitors, to discover whether these barriers were equal in magnitude, dependent upon one another etc.
A multiple method research approach revealed key companies had overcome barriers to an organisations ability to foster disruption. The Vodafone case study is presented in this paper to illustrate how one company tackles these issues. It is responsible for developing new technologies and applications for mobile technologies for clients within the Vodafone group. Consequently, v-pe has to deal with new technologies that are not yet developed, with customers who do not yet know their future needs and with market players who compete for technological standards and intellectual property rights.
Vodafone recognises the strategic importance of disruptive innovation and actively seeks to identify potentially disruptive innovations as early as possible in order to enable strategic responses.
If a potentially disruptive innovation arises and it does not fit to the stated strategy, v-pe develops the necessary steps to adapt and realign the group technology strategy — thus Vodafone is not an organisation defined by its current customer offerings.
A number of techniques are used to enable v-pe to adopt the results of technology monitoring, market intelligence and product development into strategic alignment. The academy is a bi-weekly forum in which employees, students and external partners present and discuss results of their projects, thesis projects and other interesting topics around their daily work. Presentations and the resultant discussions are facilitated by a neutral moderator.
The academy allows stakeholders to partake in the internal giving and receiving of information thus acting as an enabler of information logistics and knowledge flows.
The information from the academy provides channels for v-pe to influence the owners of group strategy in an ever changing discontinuous world. V-pe recognises the failure of many organisations to generate and support potentially disruptive ideas. It is held every four to six weeks and invites employees to present insights and ideas.
Presenters thus have the opportunity to find promoters and to elicit ideas and feedback from outside of their normal working network. Ideas are collected and those considered as strategically interesting are presented to the business management. The measures are described in detail in: Hipp, C; Herzberg, T Therefore, ide[e]fix is not only a forum for idea generation, it also acts as a link to strategic decision making.
A responsive project or a disruptive innovation can be placed in this forum to be adapted to strategy. Discussing ideas is not the only purpose of this forum: This is done within creativity sessions in which societal and technological trends are combined to new project ideas. Together with a no-doors architecture and a creative and open culture the generation of potentially disruptive ideas is supported.
The decision to fund ideas is based on attractiveness and fit to strategy. The tool helps employees to further develop their ideas and present them in one step. A detailed checklist of necessary and relevant information combined with a description of the process from an idea to a project proposal helps idea generators to discuss and prepare ideas before they can be evaluated for funding decisions.
Ideas that have been presented but not yet considered as mature enough to be worked out as a project proposal are stored in a database, available for every employee. V-pe is primarily involved at the front end of the new product development process.
It is the role of v-pe to prove the validity of new concepts with prototypes and demonstrators and then local Vodafone operations take over the responsibility for their continued development and application.
For this reason they use the policy that creativity consists of two components: They believe that no creative idea can be developed to a successful innovation if it does not have the adequacy to fit a market. In these terms, v-pe is aware that the adequacy of potentially disruptive innovations is often not visible on first sight, which makes it harder to identify a disruptive idea as a good idea.
Therefore, v-pe not only supports the creativity of its employees but acts to ensure adequacy at all times. This is done by equipping the employees with a number of tools. A method toolbox has been developed. The toolbox provides creativity, analysis, future research techniques and business planning methods. Employees are, therefore, supported in the process of combining future market needs and new technologies to create new product concepts and to develop ideas into planned project proposals.
In collaboration with practitioners the authors have used the definition to co- create a conceptual framework that explains the multifaceted and interrelated issues of the phenomenon and how it can be fostered and managed within an organisation as part of a major competitive strategy. The framework has been used to extrapolate the key barriers to disruption faced by a heterogeneous group of practitioners, and the four most important barriers for each of the collaborating organisations were identified and these were supported by the literature, case studies, and further practitioner and expert interviews.
From the results of the research so far, it can be concluded that practitioners struggling to foster disruptive innovation suffer from one or a combination of some or all of the following inhibitors: These factors are now the focus of deeper investigation within this research project.
There are two major outstanding objectives in the research: This will culminate in the validation of the conceptual framework for disruptive innovation that has been co-created by innovation practitioners and academia. The Mode 2 approach to the current research has proved vital in establishing the academic rigour of the investigation whilst also addressing a pertinent industrial problem in the context of practice.
This has facilitated the development of new knowledge on the theory of disruptive innovation and how it can be fostered in practice by organisations. Strategic Management Journal 22, Allen, D. Amabile, T. Harvard Business Review 76, Baden-Fuller, C.
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