More Reading Power3 - Download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read online. Student-Centered reading skills Teacher's Guide. More Reading Power - Ebook download as PDF File .pdf) or read book online. Documents Similar To More Reading Power More Reading Power3 AK. Book Details Author: Linda Jeffries,Beatrice S. Mikulecky Pages: Publisher: Pearson Education ESL Brand: English ISBN: Publication Date: Release Date: Reading Comprehension covers skimming, scanning, recognizing topics and main ideas, understanding sentences.
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The new edition of Reading Power 3 is enhanced by research-based methods and activities for learning vocabulary. Longer reading passages and new. Reading Power is the latest edition of the popular reading skills textbook Reading Power. Its unique structure, featuring four parts to be used concurrently, allows. 9 تشرين الأول (أكتوبر) More Reading Power Part Two: Reading Comprehension Skills Unit 1: Scanning Unit 3: Vocabulary Knowledge for Effective Reading.
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No notes for slide. More reading power 3 student book 3rd edition read [pdf] 1. Book Details Author: Linda Jeffries ,Beatrice S. Mikulecky Pages: English ISBN: Publication Date: Description The new edition of Reading Power 3 is enhanced by research-based methods and activities for learning vocabulary. Longer reading passages and new study-reading activities, including outlining and text marking, prepare students to enter the world of academic reading.
Listening while reading can build phonological awareness, decoding skills processing of the letters and words on the page and fluency. Whenever possible, teachers NOT students can read aloud while students follow in the text. The dramatization of fables, stories, or other kinds of narratives can give students opportunities for movement and expression that will increase their involvement in the reading and reinforce their language learning.
For further information or advice about extensive reading, see the list of references on page v. Teachers who wish to get started immediately with extensive reading in books can go straight to Unit 3: Books after introducing the concept of extensive reading and having students complete the Reading Questionnaire in Unit 1.
Afterwards, they can go back and spend time in class on the activities in Units 1 and 2. Alternatively, teachers can also make use of the activities in Unit 3 while students are reading the fiction or nonfiction passages in Unit 2, expressing their reactions, sharing views about their reading and so forth.
Teachers can also continue to draw on the activities in Unit 3 for evaluating students reading as needed throughout the course. Some of the activities might become a regular feature such as Reading Circles, Book Conferences, and Book Files , while others might be more sporadic. This questionnaire can be an effective starting point for discussion about reading with the class. Answering the questions will lead students to assess their own reading experiences and comparing their answers with those of other students will encourage them to reflect on the particular cultural or family influences that have affected their reading experiences and ability.
As mentioned above in the Introduction to Part 1, it is essential for the success of extensive reading that students understand what it is and how it can help them. After students have read this page, teachers can add some of the arguments mentioned on page 3 in order to convince students of the value of extensive reading.
In this unit, students learn to deal with unknown words in their extensive reading. If there are too many new words, students will have trouble understanding and will become discouraged. For this reason, it is very important for students to read at an appropriate level. Students should not look up every new word. This would slow them down, interrupt the story, and take the enjoyment out of reading. Vocabulary work is important, but it should be kept separate from extensive reading sessions.
Students should look up a word only if they cannot follow the story without it. Students should be encouraged to skip over words that are not essential to the story for example, in a detailed description. The exercises in Unit 1 are intended to show students that they can understand a lot even when words are missing, but some students may need extra coaching to accept this idea.
Teachers can also encourage students to try guessing the general meaning of new words. Though they may not be able to arrive at an exact meaning or translation , they may understand enough to allow them to continue reading.
Students may need guidance and encouragement to use these strategies. With practice, they will gain confidence, and be better able to decide which strategy to use and when. Teachers should make sure that students follow the instructions for the exercises. In particular, students should NOT try to guess the missing words. The purpose of this exercise is to demonstrate to students that they can understand a lot from a text even when they do not know all the words.
Even with words missingor with unknown wordsthey will probably understand enough of the general meaning to keep reading. This is true, however, only if there are not too many missing or unknown words close together. The purpose of these exercises is to demonstrate that it is often possible to get a good deal of information about a word from the words or sentences around itthe context.
Thus, when students encounter a new word that they cannot skip over because it seems important to the passage, they should try to use the context to construct at least an approximate meaning.
That may be enough for the first reading. On further encounters with the word, they may be able to construct a more precise meaning. In this unit, students read and discuss a story and a nonfiction passage.
The aim of the reading steps introduced here is to give students a general procedure that they can use later for reading many kinds of passages. As part of the procedure, for both fiction and nonfiction, students are asked to read each passage several times.
In fact, research shows that repeated readings of a text can enhance the comprehension and retention of ideas and vocabulary. Teachers should encourage students to go back and reread each text or parts of them as many times as they want.
After students have had a chance to read each passage on their own, teachers can further reinforce comprehension and decoding skills by reading it aloud as students follow. Teachers should leave plenty of time for discussion of the questions in Step D page 11 , in pairs, small groups, or as a class. Note that in fiction especially, the answers to the questions may vary according to individual interpretations of the story.
Teachers should check the vocabulary items that students choose to learn and make sure that they are indeed useful. If the chosen items are not frequently used words or phrases, students can be asked to justify their choices link them to their needs or interests. This will help students internalize the criteria for selecting vocabulary to learn. Teachers should make sure that students follow all the steps in Exercise 1, AE pages 8 to 11 for reading and talking about the story.
They should continue to use these steps when reading and discussing their extensive-reading books. The short story Good Morning includes some vocabulary that might not be familiar to students and which has been glossed. The glossed words are not frequent vocabulary items, so students should not write them in their vocabulary notebooks and they should not be asked to learn them.
As with fiction, it is important for students to follow all the steps in Exercise 2, AE pages 12 to 15 for reading and talking about the passage. Some students may think of nonfictionand history in particularas just a boring series of facts and dates. However, there is considerable human drama in history as well; discussion can make students sensitive to this aspect. Students should be encouraged to get involved in the drama described in this passage about the Navajo Code Talkers.
They should also be encouraged to relate this story to what they know about native populations in the United States or elsewhere , about World War II, and about war in general. Additional Activities More work with fiction or nonfiction If teachers feel that students need to build up confidence in their ability to read and talk about fiction or nonfiction in English, they can introduce another story or nonfiction passage before moving on to books in Unit 3.
It may be advisable to look in collections of stories for language learners, rather than for native speakers, for stories that are not too difficult. Rather than using one story with the whole class, you may help students develop autonomy by having them work in groups, each group with a different story.
After the groups have read and discussed their stories, each student should meet with a student from another group and tell each other about the story they have read. Alternative instructions for Step E fiction or nonfiction After they have retold the story or passage with their partner, students can be asked to retell it as a class, with each pair contributing a few sentences to the whole story, going around the classroom until it is complete.
Student-centered text exploration fiction Since different people focus on different aspects of a given text when they are listening or reading, students should be allowed to elaborate their reactions in a way that is meaningful to them. To help focus students thinking, teachers can offer a series of questions that explore different aspects of the reading experience and elicit different kinds of reactions. The following are some examples of possible questions: What sort of places did you see as you were reading?
Did you feel that you were there with the characters? Did you feel that you became one of the characters?
Did you have strong feelings about some part of the story? What do you think is the moral lesson of the story? Did this story remind you of other stories you know? Which ones and why? Did any of the characters seem like people you know? If so, why? Do you know someone who would not like this story? If so, why not? Which was the best part of the story?
Were there any parts that you didnt like? Students can choose four or five questions that they feel will allow them to express their ideas and feelings about the book. The questions can be the focus of discussion with a partner, with the teacher, or with a group of students.
Adapted from Mario Rinvolucri, How useful are comprehension questions? Students need to have access to readers and books at an appropriate level. This is crucial for success with extensive reading. Students using More Reading Power 3 may be ready to read real books for native speakers. If they are not sure, they could start with a book written for young adults or children. These tend to be somewhat easier than books for adults in terms of plot line and vocabulary, though they are not necessarily easy for language learners.
Less confident or proficient readers should be advised to start with graded readers at Level 3 or low-intermediate. As students gain confidence, they can move ahead to higher levels or to books written for native speakers.
Some students have the mistaken belief that if they choose books that are difficult for them, with lots of unknown words, they will learn more vocabulary. The more likely result is that they will simply get discouraged and stop reading. At this level, there can be big differences in students reading ability, depending on their confidence and fluency.
It is very important for teachers to make sure that each student starts with a reader or book that they can read without difficulty and without needing to consult a dictionary.
There are several ways to judge if a book or reader is at an appropriate level. Reading level tests. Some publishers of graded readers such as Penguin have level tests available on their websites. Teachers can download and use these tests to determine their students reading and vocabulary level, and thus, the suitable level of graded readers for their students.
Vocabulary size tests. These tests can give teachers a quick idea of the extent of a students vocabulary and connect that information with a suitable book level. Various kinds of texts including those developed by Nation are available on the Lextutor website: This website provides a variety of valuable resources for teachers.
This is the simplest and easiest way to determine if a given book is appropriate for a given student. How to check: Count the total number of words on an average page. Count the number of unknown words on that page. Calculate the percentage of unknown words. For example, on a page with words, there should be no more than two unknown words; on a page with words, there should be no more than five unknown words. Some studentsespecially those from language backgrounds close to Englishmay be good readers in their own language and may also be good at guessing the meaning of unfamiliar words in a text.
But if the student gets bogged down, he or she can be asked to put the book aside and read something easier, which they are usually glad to do at that point. Students must be allowed to choose books that interest them, though teachers can make suggestions about books they think will be of interest. A class lending library can be set up, preferably with more titles than students. The collection can be expanded by combining collections with other teachers.
It is important for the collection to contain a wide range of levels, genres, and subject matter. Students can have surprisingly different tastes in reading. If there is a school library with a cooperative librarian, the collection can be located there. This makes it accessible outside of class time and to a larger number of students, and may also make possible additional funding to enlarge the collection.
Many books and readers have an audio version. Listening to the audio while reading the book may make the book more enjoyable and enhances language learning. Wherever possible, teachers should try to acquire the audio versions for class and library collections and should encourage students to use them.
Activities for Stimulating Interest in Books. If multiple copies or photocopies are available, students can follow along. If not, this can become a listening exercise and teachers should read slowly. Students then talk in groups about what they think happened in the book to lead up to that sentence.
They can read the book to find out how well they guessed. The students work in groups to try to put the sentences in order and imagine what happens. These words should be content words relating to the plot or characters, not function words. This is not a language exercise. Students work in groups to try to guess words for the blanks. Teachers may want to give particular emphasis to the advice for students here about finding a regular time and place in their day for reading so that it can become part of their daily routine.
Students should also get into the habit of carrying their books with them all the time so that whenever they have free time they can pull out a book and read. Students should be discouraged from looking up vocabulary as they read through a story or book for the first time. Looking up a word should be a last resort for when they really cannot understand the story without it.
If students wish to follow up their extensive reading with vocabulary work, this may be allowed, but it should not become a required part of extensive reading. When students encounter words they want to learn, they can make a light pencil mark in the margin. Later, they can look up those words and write them in their vocabulary notebooks.
The introduction to Part 4 of this book discusses the reasons why slow reading can be a serious handicap for students: Slow readers are likely to perform poorly on exams and in courses and they will have more difficulty understanding what they read see pages in the Student Book and page 45 in this Teachers Guide. Furthermore, slow reading feeds into a vicious cycle of reading without understanding or enjoyment, which leads to less reading, even slower reading, and so on.
One way to try to turn this around to create a virtuous cycle is for students to improve their reading rate learn to read faster so that they can read more, with better comprehension and enjoyment, which will lead to more reading, even faster reading, and so on. Extensive reading often leads to improvement in reading rate in itself. Simply put, the more students read, the faster they can recognize and process words, phrases, and sentences. However, teachers can also help students improve more quickly.
As students are told in the Introduction to Part 4, reading rate is partly a matter of habityour eyes are used to moving across the page in a certain way. If you want to speed up, you need to break old habits. Finding Your Reading Rate page After students have found their reading rate in their extensive-reading book, teachers should make sure they keep track of their reading rate and check on their progress regularly about once a week.
Students should expect to see a drop in their rate when they start a new book, but normally it will pick up again after a while unless the new book is considerably more difficult than the earlier one. When students have filled up the Extensive Reading Rate Progress Charts on page 21, teachers can make photocopies of the page for them. Reading Sprints page These sprints can be a fun and effective way to help students break the habit of word-by-word or line-by-line reading. The procedure may at first seem complicated, but it is actually quite straightforward.
In any case, teachers should be sure to read through the instructions ahead of time and explain them carefully to students to avoid confusion during the sprints. The aim of these sprints is to change the way students move their eyes across the page.
This is not always easy. Many students become anxious during reading sprints because they feel that they are understanding very little of what they read. Their comprehension will drop, in fact, but this does not matter. It is more important for students to succeed in sprinting by making their eyes jump down the page. Teachers can tell students to grab what they can from the page as they go.
Students will quickly realize that in order to reach their goal during the sprints, they have to read selectively, as in skimming.
See the introduction to Unit 6, Part 3, on page Students will also realize that even when they are sprinting, they can indeed grasp some meaning from the text, probably enough to follow the story.
Above all, after they have completed the last sprints and read again in an unpressured way, most students will discover that their reading speed is faster than before. Most students enjoy the novel challenge of trying to read faster and faster, and, when they compare their initial reading speed with their final reading speed, are pleasantly surprised at the results.
Some of the more cautious students may not see much difference at first. They need to be reassured and gently encouraged to push themselves more.
If they do not manage to reach their goal the first time around during the sprints, they should be given a second, or even a third, chance. If students have chosen their extensive-reading book according to the guidelines, it should be appropriate for work on rate improvement. However, before starting the sprints, teachers should doublecheck that the books are not too difficult. Teachers can schedule several rounds of sprints throughout the course. They can also encourage students to continue to do sprints on their own, as a way to spur further rate improvement.
Notes about Evaluating Extensive Reading The sections Discussing Your Books page 22 and Writing about Your Books page 24 include several kinds of activities that can be used for evaluating progress in extensive reading. Evaluation is an important aspect of an extensive reading program.
First of all, for administrative reasons, teachers may need some tangible measure of students progress in this part of the course. The fact that the teacher evaluates students progress also reinforces the idea that extensive reading is an integral part of the course that must be taken seriously. Finally, these activities provide students with opportunities for sharing their reading experiences and for learning new ways of thinking, talking, and writing about books and ideas.
For the purposes of extensive reading, the criteria for evaluation should not be the accuracy of students language output pronunciation, grammar, or spelling , but their commitment to and progress in reading their books.
Furthermore, though the activities presented on pages 22 to 24 can stimulate students, provide opportunities to use language, and provide data for evaluation, teachers must be careful not to overdo them. If students are too often required to follow up their reading with exercises, they may come to dread finishing a book.
Finally, and most important, teachers need to keep in mind the real purpose of extensive reading, which is to encourage students to read as much as possible. However valid a follow-up activity may be, it cannot replace the reading itself. Additional Ways to Evaluate. Student-generated comprehension questions. Students can be asked to write questions for themselves. They can then respond to these questions orally or in writing. This is best done after students have had a book conference and understand that the questions should not focus on details of the plot or characters, but should instead require them to elaborate in some way on their reaction to the book.
See the list of questions for Book Conferences on page Negotiated evaluation. One way to increase students involvement and enhance their sense of responsibility is to allow them to choose how they want to be evaluated. Teachers can present a list of possible methods and ask each student to select one or two. Teachers may use the questions suggested on page 23 or others, such as the ones on the next page. In any case, students should be discouraged from retelling all the details of the plot.
From students answers, it is usually not difficult to tell if they have read the book and how well they have comprehended what they read.
Since these conferences are not tests but rather conversations about the books, teachers should not hesitate to help students express their ideas. The important thing is for students to gain confidence in their ability to communicate their reactions to their reading. Teachers should also feel free to contribute to the discussion with references to their own reading or experience, thus modeling how it is done for students.
Here are some suggestions for questions that can help students elaborate on their reactions to a book: There are a number of different ways to organize the circles groups. They can be established and maintained over the entire course so that the members of a group get to know each other well and become familiar with each others interests, as seen through their reading.
Alternatively, the groups can be changed from time to time, so that different students can get to know each other. The circles should meet regularly preferably every week so that discussion of books becomes habitual for the students.
While the reading circles are meeting, the teacher should circulate from one circle to another, listening to the discussion. The teacher may contribute a comment or react to students comments with positive reinforcement. Additional Activities for Reading Circles Student-centered text exploration If students spend too much time simply retelling the story, you can direct them towards more elaborative kinds of thinking by giving them questions like those in the Studentcentered text exploration in this Teachers Guide on page 7 Part 1, Unit 2.
Short book talks As a variation on regular meetings of reading circles, teachers can provide each group with topics relating to some aspect of their book. Each student should pick a topic. Students have five minutes to think and plan what they can say about their book in relation to the topic with notes if they wish.
Each student should talk in turn for two minutes about his or her topic.
The student to the left of the speaker should time the speaker. The student to the right should ask a question afterwards. Sample topics: Describe a character in the book you are reading that interests you and talk about why you find him or her interesting.
Does he or she remind you of someone? Do you identify with him or her? Describe the setting place and time of the book you are reading. Is it important for the story? Is it interesting to you? Have you read other books with a similar setting? What do you like best about the book you are reading so far: Why do you like it?
Is there anything about the book you are reading that you do not likethe characters, the setting, the plot, the style of writing, or some other aspect? Why do you not like it? Does the book you are reading remind you of any other books you have read or movies you have seen?
If so, what does it remind you of and why? Do you have strong feelings positive or negative about any part of the book you are reading? What part is it, what are your feelings, and why do you feel this way? Book Presentations page Before asking students to give presentations about their books, teachers should give one for the class that can serve as a model.
The presentation should be short and personal, as per the guidelines for students. Above all, teachers should convey their enthusiasm for the book. Preferably, they should talk about a book that is at an accessible level for their students so that students who are inspired by the teachers talk could read it. To raise the interest level, teachers can talk about a book that has been made into a film that students might have seen.
Teachers should try to avoid scheduling more than four presentations per lesson so as not to lose the attention of the class. Early in the semester, students can be asked to sign up for a date with the teacher. This motivates students to finish their book by that date. In a course with enough class time, teachers can organize two rounds of presentations with each student presenting two different books, one at mid-term and one near the end. Students who might be fearful about talking in front of the class alone can pair up with another student.
They can read the same book and then both can talk about it in front of the class, dividing up the questions and each giving their own opinion at the end. The book presentation should not be seen by students as a frightening ordeal, but as an opportunity to tell other students about their reading.
If a student gets stuck while giving a talk, the teacher should not leave him or her to suffer, but help by supplying a word or asking a question. While students are giving their talks, teachers should encourage the rest of the class to listen quietly and attentively.
To encourage students to pay attention, ask them to think of a question during the talk. Afterwards, the teacher can call on students to ask their questions. When a student has finished his or her talk, the other students should be encouraged to comment about the book or the speakers opinion. Others who have read the same book can express their own opinions or reactions. If kept on file in the classroom, these cards can help students choose books to read. They can also help teachers keep track of which genres, authors, or books are most popular with their students.
Alternatively, the files can be virtualcreated on a website dedicated to the course or to the program. In any case, they should always be available for students to consult. Book Reports page In these book reports, students should be encouraged to focus on their reactions to the book; they should not fill up the page retelling the plot.
It can be helpful for teachers to show them a sample report written by the teacher the first year, and thereafter by students to serve as a model so they will know what is expected. These reports should not be judged on their grammar, spelling, or vocabulary, but on the students level of engagement with the book and the effort they make to express their reaction or opinion.
Teachers can respond to the reports with brief written comments to create a dialogue focusing on the book, personal experiences, opinions, or other books they have read on related topics. Students can be asked to keep their reports together in a binder or folder, which can become a kind of reading journal.
Reading Log page This log is useful for both teachers and students as a way to keep track of the books read. For students, it can be a source of pride and satisfaction as the list grows. Additional Extensive Reading Activities Student-centered text exploration: The activity that allows students to choose among a series of elaborative questions described in the Teachers Guide to Unit 2, on page 7, in relation to the fiction and nonfiction passages can also be used with readers or books.
Reading aloud: To entice students into reading books and give them some ideas about what they would enjoy reading themselves, teachers can read aloud the opening chapter s of a book, perhaps one a week, while students follow on photocopies if there are not enough books available. In order to find out what happens, they must continue reading on their own. Predictions about books: One way to stimulate students to reflect on what they are reading and to use their imagination is to ask them to make predictions about the book when they are part way through.
Students can write down their predictions for the teacher to collect; the teacher can hand them back after students have finished reading the book, so they can compare their predictions with the actual ending. Reading survey: Near the end of the course, students can be asked to take a survey of their classmates to find out which were their favorite books. Teachers can work with the whole class to develop the questions first. Then students can be asked to circulate and ask the questions, recording the answers.
When students have completed the survey with their classmates, teachers can ask them to discuss the results, first in small groups, then with the whole class. Further activities: Relating to extensive reading can be found on the extensive-reading website and in the two books by Day and Bamford on the list of references on page v. The book list here includes only books written for native speakers, both for young adults and adults. All the books on the list are in print and available online at the time of publication, through the publishers or in bookstores in the United States and the United Kingdom.
They may not all be available in bookstores in other countries, but can be ordered from the publishers or from many online bookstores such as site. Teachers who wish to order books online internationally need to keep in mind the possible additional cost of customs duties.
In some European countries for example, books ordered from the United States are subject to a steep customs fee, while those ordered from the United Kingdom are not subject to customs. In More Reading Power 3, students will develop their vocabulary in three ways: Through direct instruction of useful vocabulary. This is the main aim of the Focus on Vocabulary sections in Part 3. Teachers can do additional vocabulary work with words and phrases used in the four parts of the book.
Most of the single vocabulary items are taken from the list of Frequently Used Words in English at the back of the student book, and therefore would be useful for students to learn. However, the vocabulary items focused on in Unit 3: Guessing Meaning from Context are less frequent.
By acquiring the vocabulary-learning skills and strategies necessary for them to become independent vocabulary learners. Direct instruction alone will not go far in helping students expand their vocabulary knowledge since there are inevitable limits to the amount of vocabulary that can be presented in any book or course.
Given the constraints of scheduling, curriculum requirements, the need for exam preparation, and so on, the number of words or phrases that can be taught in a lesson, a week, or a semester is limited.
Furthermore, according to research, long-term acquisition is possible only for learners after at least seven to ten encounters with a given word or phrase. In the light of this fact, teachers need to ask themselves, how many of the items they teach will students recognize or be able to use in six months time? Thus, significant vocabulary development is only possible if students learn how to learn vocabulary on their own, so they can continue to make gains outside of and after the course.
The approach to vocabulary learning presented in Part 2 aims to help students develop an effective study method that will ensure they a select words or phrases to learn that will be useful for them, and b encounter those words and phrases enough times to actually learn them. Through extensive reading. As explained in the Teachers Guide to Part 1, extensive reading when it is truly extensive , gives students many more opportunities to encounter words or phrases and thus helps students consolidate and expand on what they learn in the classroom and through independent study.
Furthermore, extensive reading provides students with vital input in how language is actually used and how words, phrases, and sentences are put together in a variety of contexts. Indeed, research has shown that extensive reading helps students acquire knowledge of collocation and usage, leading to greater fluency. To gain these benefits, however, teachers and students must take the extensive-reading component of the course seriously and students must do a considerable amount of readingnumerous readers or several books.
A few stories or articles will not provide enough language input to make a difference. See Teachers Guide to Part 1.
Which Language and Which Dictionary? In the Note in the Introduction to Part 2 on page 32, students are advised to check with their teachers about which language they should use when looking up words and writing definitions. In Unit 1, they are also advised to find out which kind of dictionary they should use. Many experts, including Nation , now believe this is not necessarily the most effective way for students to learn vocabulary.
Intermediate-level students may learn vocabulary better with bilingual dictionaries and definitions in their own language because those definitions are more accessible and easier to remember. Students who wish to use bilingual dictionaries should therefore be allowed to do so. They can be encouraged to consult monolingual-learner dictionaries in English as well, especially for some kinds of information, such as collocation, context, and variations in meaning because these dictionaries generally contain more information about usage than bilingual dictionaries.
It includes the first 3, most frequently used words in academic and general English. For the purposes of this book, this list has several advantages over other word lists available at this time. First, it reflects current usage of the language, while the General Service List GSL , one of those most commonly referred to, dates back to the s.
That list was drawn from a rather small collection of academic publications in a limited number of fields, which makes it less suitable for students at the level for which More Reading Power 3 is intended.
The PICAE word list, on the other hand, is based on a variety of curricular and extra-curricular sources, including textbooks at the undergraduate level and student magazines, just to name a few.
Instead, forms are listed separately, and are only included if they are indeed among the most frequent words. This explains why the list is relatively long, 3, words, compared with the 2, words of the GSL.
For example, the following are listed separately: The reasoning behind this choice was very simple: At this level, it may not be safe to assume that students will necessarily make connections among different forms of a word, especially if they have never before done any work on word segmentation.
Furthermore, students will have a better idea of the usefulness of each form of a word and so can decide whether or not to learn forms that may be less frequent. Teachers should in any case help students become proficient in recognizing words belonging to the same family and can help them gradually expand their knowledge of word forms to include some that may not be listed.
See Part 2, Unit 4: It contains the top 3, words in the corpus ranked by average reduced frequency to discount multiple occurrences of a word that occur close to each other in the same document. The curricular material includes a wide range of academic subjects covering the four main academic disciplines, namely the humanities, social science, natural and formal science, and professions and applied sciences.
It also comprises lectures, seminars, textbooks, and journal articles at undergraduate as well as postgraduate levels. Teachers should work together with the whole class on the first exercise of each type or the first item if there is only one exercise , checking students understanding at each step and modeling the necessary thinking processes aloud.
Whenever possible, teachers should ask students to work in pairs. That way, they can pool their knowledge of vocabulary. Talking about words also forces students to try to pronounce them, which reinforces memory see the comments about pronunciation on page 18 of this Guide. Students are encouraged to choose the words they want to learn. According to research, giving students responsibility for their learning in this way increases their involvement and motivation, making them more likely to actually learn the words.
The tests in the Test Booklet for More Reading Power 3 can be used either for evaluating students acquisition of vocabulary or skills, or for additional practice or review.
It is important for teachers to assess students vocabulary learning. Teachers should keep up the pressure in a friendly way by checking notebooks and study cards often, and by testing frequently. See page 24 in this Guide or Part 2, Unit 2, Test 3 in the Test Booklet for a testing format that can be photocopied or simply copied onto a piece of paper.
Students need to be encouraged to review vocabulary often and over a long period of time, so they will not forget words learned in past weeks or months. See Studying Vocabulary, page 21 of this Guide. To this end, teachers should periodically give students review tests. There are a number of useful online resources students can consult in addition to dictionaries.
One of these is Check My Words at http: The information about words given in this dictionary is typical of most learner dictionaries. At this level, students should ideally have two dictionaries: A monolingual-learner dictionary intended for intermediate students.
Learner dictionaries are preferable to other monolingual English dictionaries because they provide more information about how words are used. The definitions are also more accessible, since they are written with limited vocabulary and simple structures. A bilingual dictionary. These dictionaries provide accessible meanings for students, who may have difficulty understanding even the controlled language of learner dictionaries.
Because bilingual dictionaries are bi-directional English-to-first language and first language-to-English , they are also more helpful for productive use. One further advantage to the use of bilingual dictionaries is that it may be easier for students to remember definitions in their first language. Pronunciation plays an important role in reading in two ways.
If students cannot pronounce a word or phrase, they are much less likely to remember it. Many people have experienced this when reading a book written in another language, for example, a Russian novel. If you are not familiar with Russian, you may not be sure how to pronounce the names of characters and places and may have difficulty remembering them.
Furthermore, learning to pronounce words and listening to others try to pronounce them involves another part of the brain, another learning dimension, which reinforces the memory of those words. Research has also shown that knowledge of the way words sound in English helps students to decode them, that is, to process the letters and words on the page.
The speed at which words are decoded greatly influences comprehension and fluency. For these reasons, teachers need to pay attention to pronunciation, even in a reading class. They should always pronounce new words for the class and give students practice saying them aloud. Students also need to learn how to make use of the information about pronunciation that is available in dictionaries.
Modern learner dictionaries use the symbols of the international phonetic alphabet, as in these exercises, but some dictionaries use other symbols. If necessary, teachers can use those symbols to develop exercises similar to the ones in Unit 1. It is not necessary for students to memorize the pronunciation symbols, since they can always refer to the examples in their dictionaries, but they will need practice recognizing the symbols and interpreting them. Studies suggest that the first letters of a word are the most important in word recognition, so teachers should instruct students to concentrate on the first letters.
Very often those first letters may be enoughalong with other information from the contextfor the reader to guess the rest of the word, and move ahead. Additional Activities. For more work on pronunciation, teachers can create additional exercises like the ones in this section. Where possible, the words should be ones students have encountered or are likely to encounter, that is, frequently-used words from the list in Appendix 2. Research in both L1 and L2 reading development suggests that instruction in phonics can also greatly help students with their reading.
This can include teaching the most frequent and regular sound-spelling correspondences and practice sounding out wordssaying aloud each of the sounds in the word and noting the spelling for each sound. Students should be encouraged to do this whenever they encounter a new word. Lists of minimal pairs can be found online by typing minimal pairs into a search engine. Spelling is another kind of word knowledge that is important for reading. If students have only heard a word, but are unsure how it is spelled, they may not recognize it in their reading.
Furthermore, knowledge of how words are spelled helps speed up students decoding. Students need to understand the importance of spelling in reading or they may not bother to focus on it. Teachers should, therefore, take the time to check students knowledge of spelling during class.
This should continue throughout the course. They should also require correct spelling on assignments and tests. The more opportunities students have to think about sound-spelling correspondences, the more aware they will become of the regularities in English spelling. It is important for students to realize that regularities do indeed exist especially with consonants and that these can help learners acquire spelling for new words.
In order to follow the syntax of a sentence, students need to understand the role of each word in the sentence. That is not possible unless they know what part of speech it is. Knowledge of the part of speech is therefore very important in constructing the meaning of a sentence.
Knowing the part of speech is also important because of the way it can help limit the possibilities in predicting what will come next in the sentence. Research has shown that prediction is a key aspect of the reading process. The more quickly and accurately students can make predictions and confirm them, the more fluently they will read.
For example, if a particular word is an adjective, it is fairly likely that the next word will be a noun. A prediction can be further narrowed down if students know anything about likely noun collocates for the adjective. Only one exercise has been included for determining part of speech, but others like it can easily be created. Being able to choose the most appropriate meaning from among several in the dictionary is an important skill that can be developed with training.
These exercises aim to raise students awareness of the possible pitfalls of choosing one meaning from among several and give them practice in making choices. As with parts of speech, teachers can easily create exercises that are similar to the one here, preferably with a learner dictionary, since they tend to include more examples. Last, but not least, students need to learn to make use of the collocational information and the example sentences in dictionary entries to get a fuller understanding of when a word is used and what other words are used with it.
This aspect of word knowledge is essential, of course, for appropriate use of new words in speaking or writing. It is also important in reading, as knowledge about context and collocation can help a reader narrow down the possibilities of what may come next in a sentence, and so improve fluency. When teachers focus on new words in reading passages, they should also provide information about usageboth collocational and syntactical. Students should then be encouraged to add notes about usage to their vocabulary notebooks.
Awareness of syntax and collocation will be developed further in Part 2, Unit 6. Focusing on words that students have already encountered in lessons or readings, teachers can create additional exercises of this type from the example phrases and sentences on a dictionary page.
This unit trains students in an approach to new vocabulary that they can use for all their readingin More Reading Power 3 as well as in other books though NOT in their extensive reading. A key feature of this approach is that students select the vocabulary that will be useful for them to learn. They then develop a personalized study method using vocabulary notebooks and word study cards. Teaching students how to select the words to learn helps them avoid wasting time on words or phrases they may not need, and also makes them responsible for their learning, which increases their involvement and motivation and leads to more learning.
For the approach to succeed, students must understand the criteria behind choosing useful words. In fact, most students are relieved to have some way to focus their vocabulary learning, a task that may sometimes seem monumental to them. In the steps presented here, students will become familiar with the Word List in Appendix 2, on page of the Student Book and also be asked to reflect on their own language needs.
Teachers will need to check students work closely and ask them to justify the choices they make. They should also monitor carefully and often students vocabulary notebooks and study cards to make sure students follow through after the initial class work.
Further practice in the process of selecting vocabulary to learn is provided in the Focus on Vocabulary sections at the end of each unit in Part 3.
These sections also provide teachers with examples of exercise types for more vocabulary development. See the lextutor website, developed by Tom Cobb at the Universit du Qubec Montral, for help in creating various kinds of vocabulary exercises: See page 16 in this Guide for more about the word list.
In further vocabulary work, it is advisable for teachers to continue to consult the list as one measure of the usefulness of any given word. As mentioned in the Student Book, other criteria may also be important, including relevance for a particular reading or for the students courses, work, or personal interests. If teachers wish to give students additional practice choosing words to learn, the passages they use should not be too difficult. Students will learn more from texts that contain some, but not too many, new words.
If there are too many unknown words, they will have difficulty understanding the general ideas and will not be able to establish the context.
Note that in Exercise 5 students will be asked to look back at the vocabulary items they have written in the margins of Exercises 1 to 4 and to transfer them to their vocabulary notebooks, which will give them further opportunities to work with these words. Teachers may need to remind students that their notebook and study card entries should include the part of speech and the sentence where they found the word or phrase. It is important for this to become a regular habit.
Step 1 A in the exercises: Reading all the way through the passage before focusing on new words or phrases allows students to get a general sense of the ideas and to establish a context.
Step 2 B in the exercises: Research suggests that re-reading greatly enhances comprehension and so further builds context. Students may already have noticed words or phrases that are new to them; with this second reading and underlining, those words and phrases get more focused attention. Steps 3 and 4 C and D in the exercises: Students may understand the process better if teachers model their thinking aloud with a few vocabulary items in Exercise 1 on page When students are working on Exercise 2, teachers can ask some of the more confident students to explain their choices to the class.
At this point, students might not recognize phrases that are useful collocations, so teachers might want to point some out in the text e. Even if students may be able to guess the meaning of a collocation, recognition will be speeded up by the fact that students have focused on it, written it down, and reviewed it.
They are also more likely to acquire it for their productive vocabulary. Step 5 E in the exercises: Though students have had some guidance in Unit 1 on how to find phrases in the dictionary, this task may still present problems for some, and that may cause them to simply avoid looking up phrases.
Teachers may want to provide further practice and assistance for those who seem to need it. To become independent vocabulary learners, students must develop a systematic method for studying vocabulary. This section introduces the use of a vocabulary notebook for collecting words to be learned and the use of word study cards for review.
If students follow the recommended procedure for choosing vocabulary from their reading and then use vocabulary notebooks and study cards as suggested, they should encounter each item enough times to ensure learning, though that will need to be reinforced with subsequent reviewing and testing.
Reviewing is an important aspect of vocabulary learning that students may overlook when studying new vocabulary on their own. Even the most eager learners often move ahead continuously to new vocabulary and do not realize the importance of going back over words and phrases that they learned in previous weeks or months.
Teachers should emphasize the need for regular reviewingafter each class, the next day, after a week, two weeks, or a month. The best way to encourage this kind of review is with frequent short quizzes of recently acquired vocabulary in students notebooks, and regular review More Reading Power 3 Teachers Guide.