PDF | Near Field Communication (NFC) is a special category or a case of RFID ( Radio Frequency Identi cation) Technology. The modern age. PDF | Near Field Communication (NFC) is a technology that enables a device to communicate with another at a maximum distance of around. (NFC) Technology and. Measurements. White Paper. Near Field Communication (NFC) is a new short-range, standards-based wireless connectivity technology.
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NEAR FIELD COMMUNICATION. A SEMINAR REPORT. Submitted by. ANURAG KUMAR in partial fulfillment for the award of the degree of. BACHELOR OF. Jointly developed by Philips and Sony, Near Field Communication (NFC) is a wireless NFC is central to Philips' vision of a world where everyone can always . Near Field Communication. Convenience takes a great step forward. But what about the footprints we leave? 14 October Christian van 't Hof and Wouter.
Once the two devices are linked, they exchange data over the unlicensed NFC supports encryption, and the fact that the devices must come so close together to communicate further bolsters security because the odds of a hacker intercepting a radio signal over such a short distance is minimal. Peer-to-peer mode enables two NFC devices to communicate with each other to exchange information and share files.
Card emulation mode enables NFC devices to act like smart cards, allowing users to make retail and transit downloads.
NFC and other options in the U. Google Wallet is an application that uses NFC to make mobile payments. It first appeared in September in the U. For instance, a tag stationed near a bedside could be programmed to turn the phone's music app on each time the phone comes close. An NFC tag can also be used in a billboard or kiosk, much the same way QR codes are used to provide information when read by a smartphone or other enabled device.
Via a simple tap as a smart card so that other NFC devices can read data on the tagged object, a receiving NFC device can thus from it. This operation mode is used in particular for easily be provided with related content that is presented payment or ticketing applications or for providing access accordingly formatted [4, pp]. In the scenario of control. The NFC device thereby substitutes a credit card, downloading a concert ticket, as shown in Figure 1, most paper-based ticket or an ID card, eventually leading to the probably such Smart Poster Record Type will be used.
Connection Handover C. NDEF message is used for the transfer of data, no matter In theory however, NFC also provides a mechanism for a whether the communication takes places between two NFC connection handover to an other wireless technology with devices or between one device and a passive NFC tag. The higher data rates like Wi-Fi or Bluetooth. In general, the NFC Forum has hereby defined a universal set of rules for establishment of such data communication requires a lot of the data structures used for any kind of NFC communication.
The the required configuration parameters. Following a technical NDEF record is composed of a header and a payload part specification provided by the NFC Forum in this way the containing the actual user data. Apart from an ID that uniquely negotiation sequence for activating a new communication identifies the record, the header most notably defines the type channel can be achieved via NFC hence enabling an easy and therefore of the format of the record data [4, pp connection handover. This could be either a MIME media type, describing a composition of e.
In contrast to the MIME media types, subsequent chapter, it will be useful to discuss the basic NFC the latter specifications define not only the data structure, but hardware components in smartphones and their role within also the way how the data should eventually be processed and the NFC communication flow.
This will be useful to also presented on the receiving output device, i. It them. This leads to more power consumption on the mobile required: The connection setup is The Host Controller acts as the heart of every mobile also quite complex and time consuming.
Another important phone. They represent two-dimensional optical barcodes, therefore an essential part for integrating NFC functionality visualized by coded black and white patterns storing various into the handset. The NFC Antenna obviously is needed for types of data, i.
Whilst generating Controller modulates, demodulates and processes the signals virtually no costs, QR codes can be printed on different kinds in accordance with the mentioned NFC specifications whilst of surfaces, typically on product packages and advertisement supporting all three modes of operation. Last but not least, the posters. Many NFC systems conspicuous, but also sensitive to the readers pose, lightning deal with critical and sensitive data and therefore need a conditions and other disruptive conditions in the environment.
Such Secure camera of a smartphone is in general more cumbersome and Element can be integrated into a mobile phone in several ways. Maybe the most evident and nologies can complement each other quite well.
This card is provided by the mobile Wi-Fi and Bluetooth in future smartphones. When switching Near Field Communication offers great capabilities for var- to a new phone, the customer can hence easily continue to ious and comprehensive use cases.
However, the UICC is released by and bound to achieve cheap and fast acceptance and marketability, but also a specific network operator making it problematic to develop offer great usability. They do not need to  have any knowledge about the underlying technology as the communication starts automatically by simply bringing two F.
Comparison to Similar Technologies devices, or a device and a tag respectively, physically together. Certainly, there are other technologies for wireless com- Therefore, NFC is perfectly suited for mobile payment and munication providing capabilities that are similar to the just ticketing scenarios.
In the end however, Bluetooth is a further short-range communication technol- several other differing use case examples will also be men- ogy that can also be integrated into mobile phones. It operates tioned. Mobile Payment transfer of larger amounts of data.
It allows considerably Compared to traditional payment solutions, NFC payment higher working ranges of several meters making it on the primarily leads to faster and easier payment at the Point of other hand easier to undesirably intercept signals. It hence Sale POS , e. Furthermore, NFC connections can be vending machine. At present, a customer conventionally pays established at once within a fraction of a second, whereas either by cash or with a debit card.
In the first case when Bluetooth usually involves further configuration settings and paying cash, the user is required to always carry cash money user interaction or device pairing.
However, a new Bluetooth with him. Then, at the POS the proper amount of invoiced feature, called Bluetooth low energy BTE , also aims to money as well as the change need to be counted and scrabbled provide a more usable, low-powered technology with much together.
This leads to a cumbersome and time-consuming faster connection setup. Before making a download, a PIN must be entered to  access the data. Google Wallet is one of the first mature NFC payment services, but still limited to a single smartphone model and to a sparse number of merchants.
The appropriate card Google Wallet service infrastructure. So far, up to With NFC payment a see Figure 3 a. In the meantime, another major credit card single movement of the hand is sufficient. Entering a PIN however might still be necessary available to the Wallet service .
It is hence predictable and advisable for security reasons. At all supported sonalized discount coupons and bonus cards. This additionally merchant locations, customers who do not own a credit card of contributes to making a traditional wallet becoming redundant. For this purpose by simply holding two phones closely together and by using Google provides a virtual Google Prepaid Card.
This card can the discussed NFC peer-to-peer operating mode. On the user be funded by any credit card and its account is only available side, the biggest barrier however for using such contact-less virtually in the NFC handset. Anyway, most of the loyalty cards by means of a service called Google Offers.
Those discounts will be automatically re- 1 Google Wallet: A first meaningful and promising con- deemed when paying with Google Wallet on-site. The Google cept available for the public has been developed by Google, Offers service is furthermore a way for financing the Google called Google Wallet —.
It was officially presented Wallet application, which itself is free to use for both shoppers for the first time in May and launched in September and merchants. By pushing sponsored offers to users of Google Google Wallet is primarily built upon an application for Wallet, Google is able to make money anyway. Currently however, only a personal data.
Also, the number of supported credit cards and Element of the phone. For the Nexus S phone thereby a the number of available payment locations is still limited at dedicated chip, named SmartMX, is used . This chip is present. Google Wallet currently offers two types of payment non-removable and seamlessly embedded in the handset while instruments: As of and operating system. NFC based payment system called PayPass. This is presumably the reason to the Google Wallet download scenario presented before.
A commonly used technique. A Google base so far. As being highly dependant on the MNO, this Wallet user approaches an eligible merchant location and asks concept however is not supposed to become a worldwide the cashier to pay via the Google Wallet service. The cashier success. The payment solutions given so far all user to tap his phone on the NFC reader, e.
Having done this, the Wallet appli- capable phone and a vendor that is in possession of a NFC cation demands the user to enter his PIN before proceeding. In order to perform In November , PayPal released application offering such the actual payment process, the user again taps the NFC features for Android. The invoiced amount is virtually debited from the about easy payments between two users via the Internet.
Wallet and the PayPass reading device eventually triggers the Therefore, a user, who is uniquely identified by his email money transaction with the users bank account.
As in this address, links his PayPal account to a standard bank account example the retailer also offers a certain bonus program, the or credit card. PayPal serving as a trusted third party is now Wallet application automatically earns some loyalty points able to exchange money between two users by simply debiting giving some discount on the next download at this POS. The architecture most competing with receives a notification on his phones immediately.
After being Google Wallet is expected to be developed and provided by confirmed by the user, the payment is then processed online a consortium called ISIS. This consortium is mainly built via the PayPal servers.
Mobile Ticketing zon Wireless. In certain cases, - due to financial reasons - to also run its service on existing both mobile ticketing and payment could even be combined payment networks like those run by Visa and MasterCard. A different approach for mobile journey. This solution based mobile ticketing is operating in London. The so-called however is currently only available and adapted for the Chi- Oyster Card works as contactless smartcard for prepaid mobile nese market. In cooperation with China Telecom the SIMpass ticketing and can be used on all public transport services technology is based on the following concept: All buses as well as entrance and NFC antenna that is manually placed between the battery and departure gates of subway and train stations are equipped with the back case of the mobile phone is connected to a special RFID readers which the customers have touch with their Oys- RFID-SIM card.
Altogether slot of the phone providing normal SIM applications as well more than In as contactless functions like payment services. By thus adding either case, the readers are able to read and write the cards in NFC support manually, this concept is completely independent less than ms allowing a quick and straightforward access of the handset architecture and is hence also applicable for control and ticketing procedure. This form of system thus phones that originally are not manufactured with NFC support.
NFC-capable smartphones. The figure shows two Samsung Galaxy Nexus phones exchanging a map location.
As a matter of course the card needs to be topped via the Internet. NFC protocols established a generally supported standard. When one of the connected devices has Internet connectivity, the other can exchange data with online services.
NFC-enabled portable devices can be provided with application software , for example, to read electronic tags or make payments when connected to an NFC-compliant apparatus. Earlier close-range communication used technology that was proprietary to the manufacturer for applications such as stock tickets, access control and payment readers. Like other " proximity card " technologies, NFC employs electromagnetic induction between two loop antennas when NFC-enabled devices—for example a smartphone and a printer—exchange information, operating within the globally available unlicensed radio frequency ISM band of NFC tags are passive data stores which can be read, and under some circumstances written to, by an NFC device.
They typically contain data as of [update] between 96 and 8, bytes and are read-only in normal use, but may be rewritable. Applications include secure personal data storage e. NFC tags can be custom-encoded by their manufacturers or use the industry specifications. The standards were provided by the NFC Forum. Secure communications are available by applying encryption algorithms as is done for credit cards  and if they fit the criteria for being considered a personal area network.
A patent licensing program for NFC is under deployment by France Brevets, a patent fund created in This program was under development by Via Licensing Corporation, an independent subsidiary of Dolby Laboratories , and was terminated in May Present and anticipated applications include contactless transactions, data exchange and simplified setup of more complex communications such as Wi-Fi.
NFC is rooted in radio-frequency identification technology known as RFID which allows compatible hardware to both supply power to and communicate with an otherwise unpowered and passive electronic tag using radio waves.
This is used for identification, authentication and tracking. NFC operates at NFC always involves an initiator and a target; the initiator actively generates an RF field that can power a passive target.
This enables NFC targets to take very simple form factors such as unpowered tags, stickers, key fobs, or cards. NFC peer-to-peer communication is possible, provided both devices are powered. NFC tags contain data and are typically read-only, but may be writable. They can be custom-encoded by their manufacturers or use NFC Forum specifications. The tags can securely store personal data such as debit and credit card information, loyalty program data, PINs and networking contacts, among other information.
The NFC Forum defines four types of tags that provide different communication speeds and capabilities in terms of configurability, memory, security, data retention and write endurance. Tags currently offer between 96 and 4, bytes of memory.
As with proximity card technology, near-field communication uses electromagnetic induction between two loop antennas located within each other's near field , effectively forming an air-core transformer. It operates within the globally available and unlicensed radio frequency ISM band of Theoretical working distance with compact standard antennas: Note because the pickup antenna may be quenched by nearby metallic surfaces, the tags may need to be spaced slightly away from the surface.
Supported data rates: NFC employs two different codings to transfer data. NFC devices are full-duplex—they are able to receive and transmit data at the same time. Thus, they can check for potential collisions if the received signal frequency does not match the transmitted signal's frequency. Applications may use higher-layer cryptographic protocols e.
SSL to establish a secure channel. The RF signal for the wireless data transfer can be picked up with antennas. The distance from which an attacker is able to eavesdrop the RF signal depends on multiple parameters, but is typically less than 10 meters. A passive device that doesn't generate its own RF field is much harder to eavesdrop on than an active device. This is similar to a man-in-the-middle attack.
This attack can be implemented using only two NFC-enabled mobile phones. These standards specify the modulation schemes, coding, transfer speeds and frame format of the RF interface of NFC devices, as well as initialization schemes and conditions required for data collision-control during initialization for both passive and active NFC modes.
They also define the transport protocol , including protocol activation and data-exchange methods.
The air interface for NFC is standardized in:. NFC-enabled phones work at a basic level with existing readers. In "card emulation mode" an NFC device should transmit, at a minimum, a unique ID number to a reader. The GSM Association GSMA is a trade association representing nearly mobile telephony operators and more than product and service companies across countries.
Many of its members have led NFC trials and are preparing services for commercial launch. Standards include the four distinct tag types that provide different communication speeds and capabilities covering flexibility, memory, security, data retention and write endurance. NFC Forum promotes implementation and standardization of NFC technology to ensure interoperability between devices and services. In Android 4. HCE allows any Android 4. NFC offers a low-speed connection with simple setup that can be used to bootstrap more capable wireless connections.
NFC can be used for social networking , for sharing contacts, text messages and forums, links to photos, videos or files  and entering multiplayer mobile games. NFC-enabled devices can act as electronic identity documents and keycards.
These programs can allow a change of phone settings, texting, app launching, or command execution.