Also Dynamic Output images, PDF files and even Flash movies As we have just said PHP is a fully featured programming language so it can do just about. PHP i. About the Tutorial. The PHP Hypertext Preprocessor (PHP) is a programming language that allows web developers to create dynamic content that. Server-Side web programming server-side pages are programs written using one of many web programming languages/frameworks examples: PHP, Java/JSP.

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methods of teaching those concepts to minimize any difficulties for those new to programming. Toby is fluent in scripting languages such as PHP, ASP, and Perl, . terney.info - Download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read online. Nutshell Handbook, the Nutshell Handbook logo, and the O'Reilly logo are registered trademarks of. O'Reilly Media, Inc. Programming PHP.

Stack Overflow: DOMDocument loadHTML does not encode UTF-8 correctly Internationalization i18n and Localization l10n Disclaimer for newcomers: i18n and l10n are numeronyms, a kind of abbreviation where numbers are used to shorten words - in our case, internationalization becomes i18n and localization, l10n. First of all, we need to define those two similar concepts and other related things: Internationalization is when you organize your code so it can be adapted to different languages or regions without refactorings. This action is usually done once - preferably, at the beginning of the project, or else you will probably need some huge changes in the source! Localization happens when you adapt the interface mainly by translating contents, based on the i18n work done before. It usually is done every time a new language or region needs support and is updated when new interface pieces are added, as they need to be available in all supported languages. Pluralization defines the rules required between distinct languages to interoperate strings containing numbers and counters. For instance, in English when you have only one item, it is singular, and anything different from that is called plural; plural in this language is indicated by adding an S after some words, and sometimes changes parts of it. In other languages, such as Russian or Serbian, there are two plural forms in addition to the singular - you may even find languages with a total of four, five or six forms, such as Slovenian, Irish or Arabic. This way is, however, hardly recommended for serious projects, as it poses some maintenance issues along the road - some might appear in the very beginning, such as pluralization.

php-programs-examples-with-output-pdf.pdf

In other languages, such as Russian or Serbian, there are two plural forms in addition to the singular - you may even find languages with a total of four, five or six forms, such as Slovenian, Irish or Arabic. This way is, however, hardly recommended for serious projects, as it poses some maintenance issues along the road - some might appear in the very beginning, such as pluralization.

The most classic way and often taken as reference for i18n and l10n is a Unix tool called gettext. It dates back to and is still a complete implementation for translating software.

It is easy enough to get running, while still sporting powerful supporting tools. It is about Gettext we will be talking here. Also, to help you not get messy over the command-line, we will be presenting a great GUI application that can be used to easily update your l10n source Other tools There are common libraries used that support Gettext and other implementations of i18n.

Some of them may seem easier to install or sport additional features or i18n file formats. It uses array formats for message.

Does not provide a message extractor, but does provide advanced message formatting via the intl extension including pluralized messages. Can be useful if you need to integrate your translation files into other parts of the system, like a JavaScript interface.

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Implements a caching layer to save you from reading the filesystem every time. It also includes view helpers, and locale-aware input filters and validators.

However, it has no message extractor. Other frameworks also include i18n modules, but those are not available outside of their codebases: Laravel supports basic array files, has no automatic extractor but includes a lang helper for template files. Yii supports array, Gettext, and database-based translation, and includes a messages extractor.

It is backed by the Intl extension, available since PHP 5. If you decide to go for one of the libraries that provide no extractors, you may want to use the gettext formats, so you can use the original gettext toolchain including Poedit as described in the rest of the chapter. Gettext Installation You might need to install Gettext and the related PHP library by using your package manager, like apt-get or yum. Here we will also be using Poedit to create translation files.

Structure Types of files There are three files you usually deal with while working with gettext. Domains There are some cases, in big projects, where you might need to separate translations when the same words convey different meaning given a context.

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In those cases, you split them into different domains. In Symfony projects, for example, domains are used to separate the translation for validation messages. Locale code A locale is simply a code that identifies one version of a language. It also includes view helpers, and locale-aware input filters and validators.

However, it has no message extractor.

php-programs-examples-with-output-pdf.pdf

Other frameworks also include i18n modules, but those are not available outside of their codebases: Laravel supports basic array files, has no automatic extractor but includes a lang helper for template files. Yii supports array, Gettext, and database-based translation, and includes a messages extractor.

It is backed by the Intl extension, available since PHP 5. If you decide to go for one of the libraries that provide no extractors, you may want to use the gettext formats, so you can use the original gettext toolchain including Poedit as described in the rest of the chapter. Gettext Installation You might need to install Gettext and the related PHP library by using your package manager, like apt-get or yum.

Here we will also be using Poedit to create translation files. Structure Types of files There are three files you usually deal with while working with gettext. Domains There are some cases, in big projects, where you might need to separate translations when the same words convey different meaning given a context. In those cases, you split them into different domains. In Symfony projects, for example, domains are used to separate the translation for validation messages.

Locale code A locale is simply a code that identifies one version of a language. It is defined following the ISO and ISO alpha-2 specs: two lower-case letters for the language, optionally followed by an underline and two upper-case letters identifying the country or regional code. For rare languages , three letters are used.

For some speakers, the country part may seem redundant. Directory structure To use Gettext, we will need to adhere to a specific structure of folders. First, you will need to select an arbitrary root for your l10n files in your source repository.

Plural forms As we said in the introduction, different languages might sport different plural rules. However, gettext saves us from this trouble once again. When creating a new. When calling Gettext in code, you will have to specify the number related to the sentence, and it will work out the correct form to use - even using string substitution if needed.

Plural rules include the number of plurals available and a boolean test with n that would define in which rule the given number falls starting the count with 0. When calling out Gettext to do localization on sentences with counters, you will have to give him the related number as well. Gettext will work out what rule should be in effect and use the correct localized version.

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