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They also promote independent organizations that oversee, monitor and evaluate institutions. They promote the development of capacities such as literacy and language skills in civil societies that will allow for increased engagement in monitoring institutions.
It should involve continual reassessment and expect change depending on changing situations. It should include evaluative indicators to measure the effective of initiated programs.
Measurements should be based on changes in an institutions performance. Evaluations should be based on changes in performance based around the four main issues: institutional arrangements, leadership, knowledge, and accountability.
The underlying idea behind this theory is that development agencies are tasked with facilitating growth in these four areas in order to speed up the process of development or make the process more equitable. Developing a government's capacity whether at the local, regional or national level will allow for better governance that can lead to sustainable development and democracy.
Capacity building in governments often involves providing the tools to help them best fulfill their responsibilities. These include building up a government's ability to budget, collect revenue, create and implement laws, promote civic engagement,  [ full citation needed ] be transparent and accountable and fight corruption.
Joel S. Migdal explains that governments can strengthen weak states by building capacity through changing land tenure patterns, adjusting methods of taxation, and improving modes of transportation. This establishes a social structure to reduce citizen conflict within the state and a means to organize agricultural production for optimal output. Adjusting methods of taxation is another way to consolidate power in a weak state's government.
This can be done through increasing government revenue through increased taxation and also formalizing tax collection by collecting taxes in cash instead of in kind.
Migdal cites the example of 19th Century Egypt's declaration of cash taxes only as the reason for increased economic capacity as farmers were forced into more market relations, pushing them to produce crops for export to increase cash revenue. This gave the state more liquid income. Also, Migdal explains that new modes of transportation can strengthen a state's capacity through decreased isolation leading to increasing economic opportunity by regional trade, increased accessibility, and reduced cost of transporting goods.
The program focused on strengthening the State's government by fostering new organizational, leadership and management skills in government figures, improved the government's technical abilities to communicate with the international community and civil society within the country.
NABDP holds training sessions across Afghanistan in areas where there exist foundations for local governments. The NABDP holds workshops trying community leaders on how to best address the local needs of the society.
Providing weak local government institutions with the capacity to address pertinent problems, reinforces the weak governments and brings them closer to being institutionalized. The goal of capacity builders in Afghanistan is to build up local governments and provide those burgeoning institutions with training that will allow them to address and advocate for what the community needs most.
Leaders are trained in "governance, conflict resolution, gender equity, project planning, implementation, management, procurement financial, and disaster management and mitigation.
This approach helped the municipal government identify priority families and communities for intervention, as well as rationalize the allocation of its social development funds. More importantly, it made definite steps to encourage community participation in situation analysis, planning, monitoring and evaluation of social development projects by building the capacity of local government officials, indigenous leaders and other stakeholders to converge in the management of these concerns.
Isomorphic mimicry[ edit ] One approach that some developing countries have attempted to foster capacity building is through isomorphic mimicry. Similar to the concept of mimetic isomorphism used in organizational theory , isomorphic mimicry refers to the tendency of government to mimic other governments' successes by replicating methods and policy designs deemed successful in other countries. While such an approach can be effective for solving certain development problems that have "a universal technical solution", it often ignores the political and organizational realities on the ground and produces little benefits to those using it.
However, the new justice infrastructure has been rarely used since its establishment, because there has been a lack of bureaucracy and financial sources to support the expensive justice system.
As summarized by Haggard et al. However, rather than constraining aggregate spending, the fiscal rule merely shifted spending from the central and to provincial governments. Adopting international best practices do not often translate into positive changes; in the case of Argentina, the mimicry produced little change to the vulnerable economy. In local communities[ edit ] The capacity building approach is used at many levels throughout, including local, regional, national and international levels.
Capacity building can be used to reorganize and capacitate governments or individuals. International donors like USAID often include capacity building as a form of assistance for developing governments or NGOs working in developing areas.
The NGO's capacity is developed as a sub-implementer of the donor. However, many NGOs participate in a form of capacity building that is aimed toward individuals and the building of local capacity. One of the most difficult problems with building capacity on a local level is the lack of higher education in developing countries.
Often, young people who develop skills and capacities that can allow for sustainable development leave their home country. Damtew Teferra of Boston College 's Center for African Higher Education argues that local capacity builders are needed now more than ever and increased resources should be provided for programs that focus on developing local expertise and skills.
The development sector, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa has many decades of 'international technical advisors' working with and mentoring government officials and national non-government organisations.
In health service delivery, whether maternal care or HIV related, community organisations have been started and often grown through the strength of their staff and commitment to be national and even regional leaders in their technical fields.
Below are some examples of NGOs and programs that use the term "capacity building" to describe their activities on a local scale:  The Centre for Community Empowerment CCEM is an NGO working in Vietnam that aims to "train the trainers" working in the development sector of Vietnam. The organization believes that the sustainability of a project depends on the level of involvement of stakeholders and so they work to train stakeholders in the skills needed to be active in development projects and encourage the activity of other stakeholders.
They also focus on building leadership skills through training workshops for teachers, priests and other community leaders. Leaders are then trained in other areas such as care and construction of hygienic water wells. In the case of Mercy Ships, the capacity building is delivering the capacity for individuals to be stakeholders and participants in defined activities, such as health care.
Organizational capacity building focuses on developing the capacities of organizations, specifically NGOs, so they are better equipped to accomplish the missions they have set out to fulfill. Failures in development can often be traced back to an organization's inability to deliver on the service promises it has pledged to keep. Capacity building in NGOs often involves building up skills and abilities, such as decision making, policy-formulation, appraisal, and learning.
It is not uncommon for donors in the global north to fund capacity building for NGOs themselves. For organizations, capacity building may relate to almost any aspect of its work: improved governance, leadership, mission and strategy, administration including human resources, financial management, and legal matters , program development and implementation, fund-raising and income generation, diversity, partnerships and collaboration, evaluation, advocacy and policy change, marketing, positioning, planning.
Capacity building in NGOS is a way to strengthen an organization so that it can perform the specific mission it has set out to do and thus survive as an organization. It is an ongoing process that incites organizations to continually reflect on their work, organization, and leadership and ensure that they are fulfilling the mission and goals they originally set out to do.
We are confident that if the chapters are carefully read and an honest effort is put into completing the activities and visiting the Weblinks, students will gain the essential knowledge and skills for program planning, implementation, and evaluation. Acknowledgments A project of this nature could not have been completed without the assistance and understanding of many individuals. First, we thank all our past and present students, who have had to put up with our working drafts of the manuscript.
Second, we are grateful to those professionals who took the time and effort to review and comment on various editions of this book. Spath, Montana Tech. For the fourth edition, reviewers included Robert G. For the fifth edition, the reviewers included Sally Black, St. Third, we thank our friends for providing valuable feedback on various editions of this book: Robert J.
Yonker, Ph. Green, Dr. Kotecki, H. We would also like to thank Jan L. Smeltzer, Ph. Fourth, we appreciate the work of the Benjamin Cummings employees Sandra Lindelof, acquisitions editor for health and kinesiology, who has always been very supportive of our work, and Meghan Zolnay, developmental editor, whose hard work and encouragement ensured we created a quality product.
Finally, we express our deepest appreciation to our families for their support, encouragement, and understanding of the time that writing takes away from our family activities.
Key Terms advanced-level 1 health educator advanced-level 2 health educator decision makers entry-level health educator Framework health behavior health education health education specialist health educator health promotion Healthy People pre-planning primary prevention priority population Role Delineation Project secondary prevention stakeholders tertiary prevention 1 CHAPTER 1 H istory has shown that much progress was made in the health and life expectancy of Americans in the twentieth century.
Yet, even with this change in focus most Americans have not changed their lifestyle enough to reduce their risk of illness, disability, and premature death. As a result, unhealthy lifestyle characteristics have lead to the United States ranking 89th out of countries in crude death rate and 50th out of countries in life expectancy CIA, Today in the United States, much of the death and disability of Americans is associated with chronic diseases.
Diseases of the heart 2. Malignant neoplasms cancers 3.
Chronic lower respiratory diseases 4. Cerebrovascular diseases stroke 5. Accidents unintentional injuries 6.
Diabetes mellitus 8. Influenza and pneumonia 9. Nephritis, nephrotic syndrome, and nephrosis Septicemia 1. Tobacco 2. Poor diet and physical inactivity 3. Alcohol consumption 4. Microbial agents 5. Toxic agents 6. Motor vehicles 7. Firearms 8. Sexual behavior 9.
This paved the way for the U. It may not have been the content of Healthy People that made the publication so significant, because several publications written before it provided a similar message. Rather, Healthy People was important because it summarized the research available up to that point, presented it in a very readable format, and made the information available to the general public. And, in part, they have kept the importance of good health visible to all Americans.
This focus on good health has given many people in the United States a desire to do something about their health. This desire, in turn, has increased the need for good health information that can be easily understood by the average person. One need only look at the current best-seller list, read the daily newspaper, observe the health advertisements delivered via the electronic mass media, or consider the increase in the number of healthpromoting facilities not illness or sickness facilities to verify the interest that American consumers have in health.
Because of the increased interest in health and changing health 4 CHAPTER 1 behavior, health professionals are now faced with providing the public with the information. However, obtaining good information does not mean that those who receive it will make healthy decisions and then act on those decisions.
Good health education and health promotion programs are needed to assist people in reducing their health risks in order to obtain and maintain good health.
Health Education and Health Promotion There is more to health education than simply disseminating health information Auld et al. Health education is a much more involved process.