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So this leading Polish geographer and author of the currently fundamental Polish textbook for political geography includes the political geography into the political sciences. This seems natural, as it has a considerably bigger number of coincident points of this science with political sciences, than the physical geography, for example.
Social sciences cannot be subject to the same criteria that natural or exact sciences, due to the fact that their main point of reference is human and manifestations of his activity. Then the fundament of understanding is the inductive and reductive deduction, and not the deductive one. So it is difficult to expect from humanistic and social sciences the creation of common and intersubjectivelly communicative laws. A good point of reference for both the geopolitics and political geography are the political sciences.
And what concerns the very definition, we should remember that it is not the very term that defines the area of knowledge or the scientific discipline.
None of the social sciences has one commonly accepted definition, and very little results from this fact, apart from the very statement Static and dynamic approach to space Karl Haushofer wrote that political geography considers the country from the angle of space, while geopolitics considers space from the point of view of the country Otok, Geografia polityczna. Sears, L.
Buddy, R. Jervis red. Other outstanding German geopolitician, Adolf Grabowsky 14 wrote that geographers, including political ones, perceive the Earth and its features as invariable, while geopolitics notices the dynamics of space, things that are variable, what has a different meaning for every historical era and each centre of power.
Regarding this, geopolitics must be included in political sciences The political geography does not search for answers to the key questions of politics.
So it is not interested in reasons of the creation and fall of the countries, the genesis of international conflicts, or the formation of this, and not a different world order. What is the most important is the grasping of key processes ruling the sphere of international politics Geopolitics is the area of knowledge, which tries to answer the key question: to what extent does the space influence the processes and political phenomena?
Unlike the political geography, which examines the influence of the country on geography, geopolitics examines the influence of space on politics. To sum up, we can thus state that geography, including the political one, is a kind of tool for geopolitics, like mathematics is one for engineers.
Otok, op. Klein, Adolf Grabowsky ein vergessener Politikwissenschaftler. However, usually the application of this term and all its potential variants, including the usage of the strangest contexts, is areflexive and devoid of greater sense.
However, in many cases this ends with the blurring of the given transfer, and sometimes even its ridicule. So it is worth paying attention to the proper and full meaning of geopolitics, understood as the autonomic field of the intelectual activity, which created its own style of thought, with its due characteristic features and regularities within the scope of formulating judgements.
The attempt of defining geopolitics only through the prism of its name etymology is incorrect and — through its narrowing — often leads to the mistaken understanding of the very essence of this field.
So the initial meaning of the discussed term indicates the dependency between the geographical space and politics. However, this is only one of the features characterizing the geopolitical attitude The essence of each field of knowledge is determined not only by the meaning of the very name, which is abbreviated due to the nature of things and often also enigmatic, but most of all its scope, the achievement of the most outstanding representatives and achievements of the leading currents.
Looking from this perspective and delving into the achievement of the academic geopolitics since the half of the XIX century till today, we can state that there exist five fundamental rules belonging to geopolitics and characterizing the understanding of the geopolitical par excellence.
Great space The most characteristic for geopolitics and broadly recognized attribute is the consideration of each political reality in multidimensional categories. Geopolitics in the inseparable way links the political aspects, even those 17 J. The essence if planetary view is included in the system thinking, which considers the processes of each region in the context of the world system.
Studies and geopolitical examinations are characterized by thinking in the continental scale. Space in the geopolitical understanding has the polyphonic and multidimensional nature, it is also multi-valued. Next to it geographical dimension, geopolitics also take into consideration in their studies and analyses the astropolitical and infospatioal element. They call it maya, the veil of delusion. Ramana Maharshi, one of the greatest Indian sages, bluntly states: The mind is maya.
Buddhism uses different terms. According to the Buddha, the human mind in its normal state generates dukkha, which can be translated as suffering, unsatisfactoriness, or just plain misery.
He sees it as a characteristic of the human condition. Wherever you go, whatever you do, says the Buddha, you will encounter dukkha, and it will manifest in every situation sooner or later. According to Christian teachings, the normal collective state of humanity is one of original sin. Sin is a word that has been greatly misunderstood and misinterpreted. Literally translated from the ancient Greek in which the New Testament was written, to sin means to miss the mark, as an archer who misses the target, so to sin means to miss the point of human existence.
It means to live unskillfully, blindly, and thus to suffer and cause suffering. Again, the term, stripped of its cultural baggage and misinterpretations, points to the dysfunction inherent in the human condition. The achievements of humanity are impressive and undeniable.
We have created sublime works of music, literature, painting, architecture, and sculpture. More recently, science and technology have brought about radical changes in the way we live and have enabled us to do and create things that would have been considered miraculous even two hundred years ago. No doubt: The human mind is highly intelligent. Yet its very intelligence is tainted by madness. Science and technology have magnified the destructive impact that the dysfunction of the human mind has upon the planet, other life?
That is why the history of the twentieth century is where that dysfunction, that collective insanity, can be most clearly recognized.
A further factor is that this dysfunction is actually intensifying and accelerating.
The First World War broke out in Destructive and cruel wars, motivated by fear, greed, and the desire for power, had been common occurrences throughout human history, as had slavery, torture, and widespread violence inflicted for religious and ideological reasons. Humans suffered more at the hands of each other than through natural disasters.
By the year , however, the highly intelligent human mind had invented not only the internal combustion engine, but also bombs, machine guns, submarines, flame throwers, and poison gas. Intelligence in the service of madness!
In static trench warfare in France and Belgium, millions of men perished to gain a few miles of mud. When the war was over in , the survivors look in horror and incomprehension upon the devastation left behind: Never before had human madness been so destructive in its effect, so clearly visible.
Little did they know that this was only the beginning. By the end of the century, the number of people who died a violent death at the hand of their fellow humans would rise to more than one hundred million.
They died not only through wars between nations, but also through mass exterminations and genocide, such as the murder of twenty million class enemies, spies, and traitors in the Soviet Union under Stalin or the unspeakable horrors of the Holocaust in Nazi Germany.
They also died in countless smaller internal conflicts, such as the Spanish civil war or during the Khmer Rouge regime in Cambodia when a quarter of that countrys population was murdered. We only need to watch the daily news on television to realize that the madness has not abated, that is continuing into the twenty?
Another aspect of the collective dysfunction of the human mind is the unprecedented violence that humans are inflicting on other life? Driven by greed, ignorant of their connectedness to the whole, humans persist in behavior that, if continued unchecked, can only result in their own destruction. The collective manifestations of the insanity that lies at the heart of the human condition constitute the greater part of human history. It is to a large extent a history of madness.
If the history of humanity were the clinical case history of a single human being, the diagnosis would have to be: Criminally insane, with a few brief lucid intervals. Fear, greed, and the desire for power are the psychological motivating forces not only behind warfare and violence between nations, tribes, religions, and ideologies, but also the cause of incessant conflict in personal relationships.
They bring about a distortion in your perception of other people and yourself. Through them, you misinterpret every situation, leading to misguided action designed to rid you of fear and satisfy your need for more, a bottomless hole that can never be filled. It is important to realize, however, that fear, greed, and the desire for power are not the dysfunction that we are speaking of but are themselves created by the dysfunction which is a deep?
A number of spiritual teachings tell us to let go of fear and desire. But those spiritual practices are usually unsuccessful.
They havent gone to the root of the dysfunction. Fear, greed, and desire for power are not the ultimate causal factors. Trying to become a good or better human being sounds like a commendable and high?
This is because it is still part of the same dysfunction, a more subtle and rarefied form of self? You do not become good by trying to be good, but by finding the goodness that is already within you, and allowing that goodness to emerge. But it can only emerge if something fundamental changes in your state of consciousness.
The history of Communism, originally inspired by noble ideals, clearly illustrates what happens when people attempt to change external reality create a new earth without any prior change in their inner reality, their state of consciousness. They make plans without taking into account the blueprint for dysfunction that every human being carries within: However, out of this insight into the nature of the human condition we may call it the bad news arises a second insight: In Hindu teachings and sometimes in Buddhism also , this transformation is called enlightenment.
In the teachings of Jesus, it is salvation, and in Buddhism, it is the end of suffering. The Power of Now Eckhart Tolle 4. Stillness Speaks Eckhart Tolle 4.
El poder del ahora Eckhart Tolle 4. O Poder do Agora Eckhart Tolle 5. Milton's Secret Eckhart Tolle 4. Praticando o poder do agora Eckhart Tolle. Um novo mundo Eckhart Tolle. I 10 libri Top Ten - Vol. Die Kraft der Gegenwart Eckhart Tolle.
Guardians of Being Eckhart Tolle 4. Il potere di Adesso Eckhart Tolle. Un nuovo mondo Eckhart Tolle.