Programming language processors in Java: compilers and interpreters / David A. . primary examples of language processors are compilers and interpreters. Programming language processors in Java: compilers and interpreters Introduction to Assembly language programming: for Pentium and RISC processors. Programming Language Processors in Java- Compilers and Interpreters – PDF Free Books Download PDF / Free Books Online / Free eBook Download PDF.
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The obvious next step was to make the machine itself assemble the program. For this process to work, it is necessary to standardize the symbolic names for operations and registers.
However, the programmer should still be free to choose symbolic names for data and instruction addresses.
Thus the symbolic notation is formalized, and can now be termed an assembly language. Even when writing programs in an assembly language, the programmer is still working in terms of the machine's instruction set. A program consists of a large number of very primitive instructions. The instructions must be written individually, and put together in the correct sequence.
The algorithm in the mind of the programmer tends to be swamped by details of registers, jumps, and so on. These are called high-level languages, by contrast with machine languages and assembly languages, which are low-level languages.
Low-level languages are so called because they force algorithms to be expressed in terms of primitive instructions, of the kind that can be performed directly by electronic hardware. High-level languages are so called because they allow algorithms to be expressed in terms that are closer to the way in which we conceptualize these algorithms in our heads.
The following are typical of concepts that are supported by high-level languages, but are supported only in a rudimentary form or not at all by low-level languages: Expressions: An expression is a rule for computing a value. Data types: Programs manipulate data of many types: primitive types such as truth values, characters, and integers, and composite types such as records and arrays.
The high-level language programmer can explicitly define such types, and declare constants, variables, functions, and parameters of these types. Control structures: Control structures allow the high-level language programmer to program selective computation e g , by if- and case-commands and iterative computation e.
Declarations: Declarations allow the high-level language programmer to introduce identifiers to denote entities such as constant values, variables, procedures, functions, and types. Abstraction: An essential mental tool of the programmer is abstraction, or separation of concerns: separating the notion of what computation is to be performed from the details of how it is to be performed. The programmer can emphasize this separation by use of named procedures and functions.
Moreover, these can be parameterized with respect to the entities on which they operate. Encapsulation or data abstraction : Packages and classes allow the programmer to group together related declarations, and selectively to hide some of them. A particularly important usage of this concept is to group hidden variables together with operations on these variables, which is the essence of object-oriented programming. Section 1. Programming Language Processors in Java 1.
With the help of language processors we can run programs, or prepare them to be run. This definition of language processors is very general. It encompasses a variety of systems, including the following: Editors. An editor allows a program text to be entered, modified, and saved in a file.
An ordinary text editor lets us edit any textual document not necessarily a program text. A more sophisticated kind of editor is one tailored to edit programs expressed in a particular language.
Translators and compilers. A translator translates a text from one language to another. In particular, a compiler translates a program from a high-level language to a low-level language, thus preparing it to be run on a machine.
Prior to performing this translation, a compiler checks the program for syntactic and contextual errors. An interpreter takes a program expressed in a particular language, and runs it immediately. This mode of execution, omitting a compilation stage in favor of immediate response, is preferred in an interactive environment.
Command languages and database query languages are usually interpreted. In practice, we use all the above kinds of language processor in program development. In a conventional programming system, these language processors are usually separate tools; this is the 'software tools' philosophy. However, most systems now offer integrated language processors, in which editing, compilation, and interpretation are just options within a single system. The following examples contrast these two approaches.
Example 1. Indeed, this philosophy was fundamental to the system's design.
The user invokes an editor, such as the screen editor v i , to enter and store the program text in a file named say C h e s s.
The user can now test the object-code program by running it using the interpreter, ja v a : java C h e s s Introduction If the program fails to compile, or misbehaves when run, the user reinvokes the editor to modify the program; then reinvokes the compiler; and so on. Thus program development is an edit-compile-run cycle. There is no direct communication between these language processors.
If the program fails to compile, the compiler will generate one or more error reports, each indicating the position of the error. The user must note these error reports, and on reinvoking the editor must find the errors and correct them.
This is very inconvenient, especially in the early stages of program development when errors might be numerous. Thus only a single editor need be provided, one that can be used to edit programs in a variety of languages, and indeed other textual documents too.
What we have described is the 'software tools' philosophy in its purest form. In practice, the philosophy is compromised in order to make program development easier. Launching GitHub Desktop Go back. Launching Xcode Launching Visual Studio Fetching latest commit…. Fall Instructor: Cem Bozsahin. TBA Office hours: Course outline Introduction: Mid-term exam: Highest honour we give out to best successful completion of the second project.
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In the second case, the compiler infers the types of expressions and declarations based on context. Complete type inference has traditionally been associated with less mainstream languages, such as Haskell and ML.
Dynamic typing , also called latent typing, determines the type-safety of operations at run time; in other words, types are associated with run-time values rather than textual expressions. Among other things, this may permit a single variable to refer to values of different types at different points in the program execution.
However, type errors cannot be automatically detected until a piece of code is actually executed, potentially making debugging more difficult. Weak and strong typing[ edit ] Weak typing allows a value of one type to be treated as another, for example treating a string as a number.
Some use the term strongly typed to mean strongly, statically typed, or, even more confusingly, to mean simply statically typed. Thus C has been called both strongly typed and weakly, statically typed. This is extremely similar to somehow casting an array of bytes to any kind of datatype in C without using an explicit cast, such as int or char.
Standard library and run-time system[ edit ] Main article: Standard library Most programming languages have an associated core library sometimes known as the 'standard library', especially if it is included as part of the published language standard , which is conventionally made available by all implementations of the language.
Core libraries typically include definitions for commonly used algorithms, data structures, and mechanisms for input and output. The line between a language and its core library differs from language to language.
In some cases, the language designers may treat the library as a separate entity from the language. However, a language's core library is often treated as part of the language by its users, and some language specifications even require that this library be made available in all implementations. Indeed, some languages are designed so that the meanings of certain syntactic constructs cannot even be described without referring to the core library.
For example, in Java , a string literal is defined as an instance of the java. String class; similarly, in Smalltalk , an anonymous function expression a "block" constructs an instance of the library's BlockContext class. Conversely, Scheme contains multiple coherent subsets that suffice to construct the rest of the language as library macros, and so the language designers do not even bother to say which portions of the language must be implemented as language constructs, and which must be implemented as parts of a library.
Design and implementation[ edit ] Programming languages share properties with natural languages related to their purpose as vehicles for communication, having a syntactic form separate from its semantics, and showing language families of related languages branching one from another.