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In the first half of the decade of , the web mediated the intensification of debates and campaigns about sexual violence. Beginning with exchange of political currency, the government had maintained support from the National Conference of Bishops of Brazil as long as it would not promote the legalization of abortion.
Bila Sorj summarized these offensives in the national congress. Sorj maintains that the attacks operated on two planes. The first refers to legislative reforms that represent setbacks in sexual and reproductive rights, such as that which creates obstacles to care, by the public health service, of women who get pregnant after a rape, reducing access to legal abortion.
The second plane refers to a conservative offensive about the new visions of citizenship that were constructed by feminist, black and LGBT movements in recent decades.
The passage removed said that schools must Plan was removed that they affirmed would promote the ominous promote equality of gender, race and sexual orientation as well as actions to fight sexual, gender and ethnic-racial prejudice in public schools. In this way, the conservatives denied the plurality and diversity of social positions demanded by social movements.
Demonstrations called 39 This term was created in the United States in the s, and marked differences between readings of rape conducted by liberal and radical feminisms. According to Rebecca Whisnant , the liberal readings tend to consider rape as a neutral assault, in terms of gender, on individual autonomy, being analogous to other forms of assault and or illegitimate appropriation.
These readings focus particularly on the damage by then president of the chamber Eduardo Cunha, which would make access to abortion and emergency contraceptives even more difficult for victims of sexual violence Sorj, Accessed in July ].
According to Whisnant, the more radical readings affirm that rape should be understood as an important pillar of the patriarchy, linked to patriarchal constructions of gender and sexuality, in the context of broader systems of male power.
These radical readings highlight the damage that rape causes to women as a group. In the realm of these discussions, in Susan Brownmiller published a book that is considered a divider of the waters in discussions about the issue. As a whole this compendium is perceived as having as a target cultural practices that reproduce and justify the perpetration of sexual violence Rentschler, There are some differences in the conceptualizations of this concept that currently circulate in Brazil on the web, but they tend to follow the conceptualization of the UN Women office in Brazil, ONU MUlheres.
Accessed in julho de ]. There are intermediary positions concerning the sexual and romantic practices of women world. One important author in relation to the analysis of violence against these tourists is Sheila Jeffreys Jeffreys considers the arguments based on intersectional readings to be neutral, in gender terms, because they obscure the dynamics of male violence. This author observes that these arguments were formulated by Marxist feminists who do not perceive the patriarchy as primary and emphasize the oppressions of class and race over that of gender.
These approaches have not given attention to violence perpetrated against the women tourists, but without denying the racialized imaginaries and the structural advantages of these travelers, underline the fluidity present in relationships in which desire and control are permanently negotiated, in the space of intimacy Frohlick, , , a; b.
This violence is considered to be an effect of the construction of the sexuality of men in the realm of male practices of objectification and aggression — while the sexuality of domination, which leads them to confirm their masculinity through women, constructed from a position of absence of power, would be expressed in very different manners. This interpretation would also apply to the analysis of violence against women tourists. For Jeffreys, appropriate analyses about this problematic would work with the idea of an encompassing patriarchal structure as an explanatory framework.
Nevertheless, it is far from original. Debert and Gregori observe that Brazilian studies about gender and violence show how conjugal violence has been the practically exclusive reference for violence against women, and according to Gregori , has been constituted as the paradigmatic case for describing the violence against women in general. Aspects of this relationship are also visible in international studies. In this sense, recent proposals guided by intersectional perspectives are particularly interesting.
A special issue about violence published by the journal Feminist Review in is significant. The articles by authors from various countries present the heterogeneity of studies that analyze violence against women. Some approaches concede to this violence the status of a category of analysis, defining it in a broad Debert and Gregori who situate this term historically in the realm of Brazilian production and problematize it.
Finally, other perspectives consider violence against women based on culturally and politically specific terms Jones, In the introduction to this issue of the journal, the organizers opted to define violence against women in broad terms, to be able to encompass different types of violence in various parts of the world49 Gill; Heathcote and Williamson, These authors consider the violence against women as a highlighted aspect of gender inequality on a global scale and also use the idea of patriarchy, but differently from Sheila Jeffreys , they affirm that this violence is also linked to other systems of inequality based on sexuality, race and class.
In addition, they consider that the multiple experiences of violence, whose methods, perpetrators and agendas are diversified, are inter-related, they are co-constitutive and mutually reinforcing on various planes: individual, institutional and on the plane of the state.
They also suggest caution in reference to the transposition of local, national, regional and international understandings of violence against women, warning of a risk of universalizing it and of articulating responses and interpretations that, going beyond local conditions, would be poorly effective for the specific needs of women. And the patriarchy persists as an explanatory framework, although its centrality is altered by other inequalities. This perception maintains relations with the idea that violence is a result of a structure of domination whose social and symbolic base is the pater-families, as Debert and Gregori show when they analyze the formulations of the Brazilian feminist author Heleieth Saffiotti, and help to understand how violence against women is reduced to conjugal and domestic violence.
This perspective was also current in the international feminist literature. Dworkin attributed violence against women to the patriarchy, an associated to the idea of pater-families — understood to mean slave institution whose basic social unit was the family.
This term was owner. However, analyses about relations between gender and violence rapidly became more complex. In the early s, Henrietta Moore 50 called attention to the need to think of the relations between gender and violence from an intersectional perspective and to consider the social dynamics in the interlacing of national and international planes. In the decades of and , a wealthy explosion of Brazilian and international studies about relations between gender and violence demonstrated the fertility of these observations.
This was a literature that, distant from circular explanations about inter- personal relations, opened new analytical paths. I refer particularly to studies related to state administrations Vianna and Farias, , to ethnic territorial re-organizations in the process of formation of new states Das, ; Schvartz Peres, , to new characteristics assumed by armed conflicts in which violence against women was not a collateral effect, becoming a strategic objective in these situations Segato, and in broad terms, to violence that takes place in spaces and situations that are beyond the realm of the private, as that perpetrated by men who did not know the victim of a brutal collective rape on a bus in New Delhi in Roy, I refer different modalities of violence linked to interpersonal relations, independently of the context and of the dynamics and dimensions of violence involved.
Rita Segato makes a distinction between crimes of war and crimes of sexual motivation, ordinary crimes of gender or intimacy, and highlights differences between gender violence that is materialized in impersonal situations separated from intimacy, and violence sparked by personal motivations.
The challenge that is still to be confronted appears to be to articulate this complexity in the violence against women in interpersonal relations and in the realm of intimacy. Nevertheless, the relations between violence and gender appear to place a particular challenge to these problematizations: how should we look at a phenomenon perceived as having a global scope, while considering cultural specificities, without stereotyping them, without generalizing, but considering that sexual and physical violence against women, as a permanent threat, appears to have impacts on all women?
Faced with these questions, various feminist authors, even some who try to work with intersectional approaches, wind up affirming the idea that women throughout the world - beyond other considerations - continue to face the effects of unequal cadernos pagu 50 , e Adriana Piscitelli power relations between men and women and appeal to the notion of patriarchy Jones, Feminist practices and essentialisms Years ago, Spivak responded to a question formulated by Elizabeth Grosz about the use of universalization to discuss the oppression of women.
At this time Spivak affirmed the importance of strategically choosing a discourse that is not necessarily universal but essentializing, at least occasionally. For Spivak, it was necessary to oppose both essentialist and universalist discourses. Therefore, it would be possible, because essentialism operates as a recourse that can offer more important to use these resources than to repudiate them, although being vigilant in terms of the theoretical practices.
These observations contribute to the understanding of the triggering of essesntialisms in the theorization and confrontation of violence. Notwithstanding, it is worth observing that if essentialisms can be productive, because they create opportunities for individual and collective action, they also involve risks, above all in theoretical terms. The pornography and prostitution. And the blaming of the victim is political use of this notion is certainly effective considering that it offers a language and relates to a shared world view.
Nevertheless, this notion is complicated in that permeate daily practices, considered to be innocent, such as conceptual terms. And this is a point ignored in feminist analyses that use this notion without problematizing it. One of the problems with this expression is the use of the notion of culture. Orientalism is an example, for tracing differences they can be considered innate. Moreover, as Sorj b observes, not only a weapon of gender domination, but of racisms, colonialisms and nationalism.
I take as an example the prostitutes who make collective demands as feminists to other Feminists who are against this position — and who renew ideas feminists and who struggle for the regulation of prostitution. The these prostitutes in actions marked by an intense symbolic accusations go beyond denying the rights demanded by the demands — decriminalization of the situation of prostitution and prostitutes as the rights of women: they convert the objects of these labor regulation of prostitution — practically into the cause of 52 Catherine MacKinnon considers heterosexuality as an institutionalization of male sexual domination and of female submission.
MacKinnon affirms that male sexual supremacy combines the eroticization of domination with the social construction of the feminine and masculine. And prostitution, rape and pornography are the sharpest expressions of this institutionalization and of the institution of gender it realizes.
And that, in this case, is materialized in a cruel attack on other feminist voices. Final considerations I used as a starting point to this article the uncommon feminist reactions in Brazil to the violence perpetrated against the young Argentine tourists who were killed in Ecuador.
To analyze the conditions of production of these reactions and the notions and presumptions that they triggered offered me a focus for reflecting on the analytical tools used to examine relations between gender, sexuality and violence in the realm of tourism.
These problems relate to other theoretical difficulties when the force of the intersectional analyses are diluted before the strength acquired by the patriarchy as an encompassing structure, particularly when violence takes place in intimate relations. To conclude this text, I return to the comments by Spivak about the use of essentialization in various realms of feminist practice, recalling her warning about the importance of vigilance concerning theoretical practices.
Perhaps exercising this vigilance would allow problematizing a fusion, without creating an analytical distancing, between concepts and presumptions used in collective mobilizations and in theoretical work.
In this sense, for Strathern, operationalize concepts or categories that are already understood or accepted. The critical reflections of Mayan anthropologist Aura Cumes about essentialisms converge with this comment by Strathern.
The problem would be that a to other essentialisms, in a path that sacrifices the constant observation of reality and also sacrifices the production of knowledge itself. There are no guarantees that essentialism, even if it is used temporarily, does not become a type of truth, leading to the neglection of a critical and inquisitive look at social processes.
Cumes emphasizes that she does not want to concept, but that she is referring to what happens when the two are confused. Writing Against Culture. Recapturing Anthropology: Working in the Present. School of American Research Press, , pp. Agains our Will: Men Women and Rape. New York Fawcett Columbine, Economies of Desire. Sex and Tourism in Cuba and the Dominican Republic. Philadelphia, Temple University Press, Novos Estudos Cebrap no 54, Sao Paulo, jul. Conceptualising violence and gender in the Brazilian context: New issues and old dilemmas.
Feminist Theory New York, Putnam Sons, The exchange of sex for money in contemporary Cuba: masculinity, ambiguity and love. Zahar, Rio de Janeiro, , pp. Fluid exchanges: The negotiation of intimacy between tourist women and local men in a transnational town in Caribbean Costa Rica. Sexuality, women, and tourism: Cross-border desires through contemporary travel. Routledge, Intimate tourism markets: Money, gender, and the complexity of erotic exchange in a Costa Rican Caribbean town.
Anthropological Quarterly Introduction, Violence.
Feminist Review, , , pp. Violence and gender. Vibrant, Virtual Brazilian Anthropology, vol. Female tourists and Beach Boys. Romance or Sex Tourism? Annals of Tourism Research, vol.
Sex tourism: do women do it too?.
Leisure Studies Violence against Women in Global Perspective. Sexing the Caribbean, gender, race and sexual labor. The daily routine should include abundant consumption of fruits, greens and other vegetables, in addition to the basic rice, beans and meat, and the composition of dishes should aim towards prevention of obesity and chronic-degenerative diseases.
Care regarding natural resources in order to ensure production of healthy foods, food safety, environmental sustainability and the future of life on the planet form part of the concept of healthy eating. Descriptors: Women. Organic Agriculture. Food and Nutrition Education. Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice. Qualitative Research. Descriptores: Mujeres. The disease burden relating to non-transmittable ailments has stimulated such studies, given that inappropriate food intake practices have been correlated with increased incidence and prevalence of cardiovascular diseases, type 2 diabetes and certain types of cancer.
In Brazil and other countries, concepts regarding healthy eating have been outlined in order to take into account the social and cultural significance of food and the nutritional needs of different population groups. In this manner, support can be given to actions promoting socioenvironmental changes towards healthier dietary choices, both individually and collectively.
On the other hand, institutions need to know about the population's dietary practices in order to promote actions that take into consideration the social, cultural and economic factors involved. Hence, this paper had the aim of describing ecological farmers' conceptions of healthy eating.
On that occasion, an exploratory study was conducted, which identified 20 ecological farming families. These institutions provided technical assistance, defined the products that should be planted to meet the market demand and downloadd the production. Some of the families maintained kitchen gardens to increase the variety of products for their own consumption. The women of these farming families had an active and participative role on the agricultural activities.
In addition to the domestic tasks that they performed, they helped in the whole process of production, harvesting and transportation of the products that they put on the market. The women's ages ranged from 22 and 68 years and their schooling level was generally low.
Two of the women only did domestic activities and two of them not only did housework and helped in the fields like the others, but were also elementary-level teachers in municipal schools.
In January and February , in-depth interviews were conducted with the aid of a guiding script that included the following questions: "What do you understand from the words 'healthy eating'? The participants were selected by means of a draw among the 20 ecological farming families, which was done for each new interview, while excluding those who had already been interviewed.
The interviews were scheduled in advance according to the interviewees' availability and were conducted individually by the main author of this paper. All the interviews were held at the interviewees' homes and lasted for two to three hours. The women were chosen for the interviews because in the families studied, they were the ones in charge of cooking. A field diary was used to note down gestures, expressions and reactions.
All the interviews were recorded, with prior permission from the participants, and these were transcribed by the main author. Transcription of the recorded testimonies was started on the same day as the interview, in a literal manner. Only after concluding the transcription was a new participant contacted, in person, to schedule the next interview. In the end, 11 women and one man were interviewed.
This man made himself available for the interview after his mother passed away: she had taken part in the environmental survey mentioned earlier. According to Moscovici, social representation comprises a system of values, ideas and practices with two functions: firstly, to establish order that will make it possible for people to get their bearings in their material and social world and control it; and secondly, to make communication possible among the members of a community, by providing them with a code for naming and classifying the various aspects of their world and their individual and social history, without ambiguity.
RESULTS Three categories were identified in the farmers' narratives: "awareness of healthy eating"; "downloading power" and "healthy land".
Awareness of healthy eating For the interviewees, healthy eating consisted of eating natural foods i. Concern regarding poison in foods was greatly present in the narratives, such that food produced with any chemical product was taken to be a product presenting a risk to health.
The intervieweers' comprehension about poison involves two dimensions: the poison that the plant receives and which remains in the food when it is produced in the conventional manner; and the poison that is introduced into the food during industrial processing, which could be preservatives or chemical seasoning: "I think that the fewer artificial things there are, the better: no poison and no preservatives.
However, these consumers are unaware that it could contain many substances that are unsuitable for health: "avoid the poison When they were still practicing conventional agriculture and were using agricultural pesticides, many of them presented health problems. Within the sphere of affectivity and care, the female eye turns to the wellbeing of her family and children.
However, it was observed that the dose of the dangerous product contained in the food was not a matter that they took into account as a risk to health. The risk was correlated with the presence of the dangerous product: "not much of this product I think that's it I think that if we avoid these products, it's healthier.
I think that it's eating a lot of greens and fruits It hurt here, it hurts there, headache, stomach ache, and when people eat badly I've even seen this with my husband Look at the starch Try to control this Avoid fats too, because of the cholesterol.
The interviewees also showed that they were attentive regarding the quality of foods that they bought, and were more critical about what was healthy: "We consume more greens than we used to.
We feel from the foods that organic food is healthier We didn't care about what we bought in the market and didn't even know what conventional food was Now we know that it just harms you Now when we go to download things in the market, wow According to the interviewees, bought food had a negative influence on their families' diets. What they produced did not meet all their needs, and the foods that they acquired from the market contained agricultural pesticides and chemical substances: "We try We only download things that we don't have Today, you have to know how to download things so you don't get harmed If we don't download things, we don't eat.
In the interviewees' view, preservation of nature is fundamental for healthy eating. This involves continual care for the land, so that healthy plants can be produced. So if the soil is clean, the plants are going to be healthy For us here, it's getting difficult to produce lettuce People think of themselves today, ah We want to have a good life Abundant consumption of fruits, greens and other vegetables, along with rice, beans and meat, should be envisaged within the daily routine.
Care taken regarding natural resources, food safety, environmental sustainability and the future life of the planet also form part of the conceptions of health eating that were presented by the interviewees. Beck2 highlighted that industrialization and modernization has led to the emergence of a "society at risk", in which the consequences of these processes, which previously had been abstracted, have now started to be demonstrated and questioned.
According to Giddens,5 with the reflectiveness of modern social life, social practices have started to be examined continually and are reformed in the light of successive discoveries and information on these particular practices. Attention to risks is acquired by individuals from their experiences, beliefs and practices, which lead them to establish their own meanings for the phenomena and for what they recognize as risk. In this respect, lay people take on a fundamental role in deconstructing and reconstructing paradigms and models that are not based only on social fears or technical-scientific threats.
The dangers are often neither visible not perceptible to those who are affected and, in certain cases, will not become active during the affected individuals' lifetimes but will have consequences for their descendants. These require attention and effort from scientific institutions so that theories, experiments and measuring instruments can be developed to make them visible and interpretable as dangers. The latter is characterized by replacement of traditional foods with highly processed foods that have high energy density and are poor in nutrients.
He presented four viewpoints corresponding to three groups that make pronouncements on such topics: small campaign groups advocating natural concepts; healthcare professionals; and the food industry and media.