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PDF version of Romeo and Juliet by William Shakespeare. of his earliest theatrical triumphs and is considered the archetypal love story of the Renaissance. Download complete works of William Shakespeare in pdf books format free. Romeo and Juliet is one of the most popular and frequently performed Shakespeare based on the inspiration from an Italian short story of Cinthio, A Moorish Captain. due its vulnerabilities of its themes of racism, love, jealousy, and betrayal. Download Romeo and Juliet free in PDF & EPUB format. Download William Shakespeare.'s Romeo and Juliet for your kindle, tablet, IPAD, PC.
Montague argues that Romeo has justly fought and killed Tybalt for the murder of Mercutio.
The Prince exiles Romeo from Verona and declares that if Romeo returns, he will be executed. Romeo secretly spends the night in Juliet's chamber, where they make love for the first and last time, consummating their marriage. In the morning, he prepares to leave and kisses her one last time.
Lord Capulet, misinterpreting Juliet's grief, agrees to marry her to Count Paris and threatens to disown her when she refuses. Juliette pleads for the marriage to be delayed, but her mother rejects her. Juliet visits Friar Laurence for help, and he offers her a drug that will put her into a death-like coma for forty-two hours. The Friar promises to send a messenger to inform Romeo of the plan, so that he can rejoin her when she awakens.
On the night before her wedding to the Count, Juliet takes the drug and, when discovered apparently dead, she is laid in the family crypt. The messenger, however, failed to reach Romeo and, instead, he learned of Juliet's apparent demise from his servant. Heartbroken, Romeo downloads poison from an apothecary and goes to the Capulet crypt.
There, he encounters Count Paris who has come to mourn Juliet privately. Because this play was written in the ' s, the English language that it uses is not exactly like the English that is used today. Some of the play is written in poetry. In modern English we say "you" for one person and also "you" for more than one person. But in Shakespeare's English, he often writes "thee" and "thou" when it means just one person. Juliet says "If they do see thee, they will murder thee!
Examples: "morn" for "morning; "morrow" for "tomorrow"; "woe" for "unhappiness". Form[ change change source ] Romeo and Juliet, like many of Shakespeare's plays, is written in several different forms. Some of it is prose , which is like normal speaking.
The servants in the play usually talk in prose.
For example, two Capulet servants are planning to cause trouble with two Montague servants who are walking down the street. Sampson: "Let us take the law of our side! Let them begin! For example, when Friar Laurence goes out to tend his garden in the early morning, he says: "The grey eyed Morn smiles on the frowning Night Checkering the eastern clouds with streaks of light.
But most of this play is written in a type of poetry called blank verse. This means that although it does not usually rhyme , it has strong rhythm. The rhythm is exactly the same in most of the play, and in many of Shakespeare's other plays. The rhythm goes: de-dah de-dah de-dah de-dah de-dah, de-dah de-dah de-dah de-dah de-dah.
For example, Juliet, who is anxious to get a message from Romeo says: "The clock struck nine when I did send the nurse! In half an hour, she promised to return!
This is called a rhyming couplet. The Prince says to Montague and Cauplet: "A glooming peace this morning with it brings; The sun for sorrow will not show his head.
Go hence to have more talk of these sad things; Some shall be pardoned and some punish-ed: For never was a story of more woe Than this of Juliet and her Romeo.
Messages are stuck into the bricks. Of all the scenes that have ever been written in plays, one of the most famous is in Romeo and Juliet. Arguments in favour of fate often refer to the description of the lovers as " star-cross'd ".
This phrase seems to hint that the stars have predetermined the lovers' future. Draper points out the parallels between the Elizabethan belief in the four humours and the main characters of the play for example, Tybalt as a choleric. Interpreting the text in the light of humours reduces the amount of plot attributed to chance by modern audiences.
For example, Romeo's challenging Tybalt is not impulsive; it is, after Mercutio's death, the expected action to take. In this scene, Nevo reads Romeo as being aware of the dangers of flouting social norms , identity, and commitments. He makes the choice to kill, not because of a tragic flaw , but because of circumstance. O heavy lightness, serious vanity, Misshapen chaos of well-seeming forms, Feather of lead, bright smoke, cold fire, sick health, Still-waking sleep, that is not what it is!
Caroline Spurgeon considers the theme of light as "symbolic of the natural beauty of young love" and later critics have expanded on this interpretation. Romeo describes Juliet as being like the sun,  brighter than a torch,  a jewel sparkling in the night,  and a bright angel among dark clouds.
For example, Romeo and Juliet's love is a light in the midst of the darkness of the hate around them, but all of their activity together is done in night and darkness while all of the feuding is done in broad daylight. This paradox of imagery adds atmosphere to the moral dilemma facing the two lovers: loyalty to family or loyalty to love.
At the end of the story, when the morning is gloomy and the sun hiding its face for sorrow, light and dark have returned to their proper places, the outward darkness reflecting the true, inner darkness of the family feud out of sorrow for the lovers. All characters now recognise their folly in light of recent events, and things return to the natural order, thanks to the love and death of Romeo and Juliet. Both Romeo and Juliet struggle to maintain an imaginary world void of time in the face of the harsh realities that surround them.
Stars were thought to control the fates of humanity, and as time passed, stars would move along their course in the sky, also charting the course of human lives below. Romeo speaks of a foreboding he feels in the stars' movements early in the play, and when he learns of Juliet's death, he defies the stars' course for him. Thomas Tanselle believe that time was "especially important to Shakespeare" in this play, as he used references to "short-time" for the young lovers as opposed to references to "long-time" for the "older generation" to highlight "a headlong rush towards doom".
In the end, the only way they seem to defeat time is through a death that makes them immortal through art. In Shakespeare's day, plays were most often performed at noon or in the afternoon in broad daylight. Shakespeare uses references to the night and day, the stars, the moon, and the sun to create this illusion. He also has characters frequently refer to days of the week and specific hours to help the audience understand that time has passed in the story.
All in all, no fewer than references to time are found in the play, adding to the illusion of its passage. The earliest known critic of the play was diarist Samuel Pepys , who wrote in "it is a play of itself the worst that I ever heard in my life. Publisher Nicholas Rowe was the first critic to ponder the theme of the play, which he saw as the just punishment of the two feuding families.
In mid-century, writer Charles Gildon and philosopher Lord Kames argued that the play was a failure in that it did not follow the classical rules of drama: the tragedy must occur because of some character flaw , not an accident of fate. Writer and critic Samuel Johnson , however, considered it one of Shakespeare's "most pleasing" plays.
Actor and playwright David Garrick 's adaptation excluded Rosaline: Romeo abandoning her for Juliet was seen as fickle and reckless.
Critics such as Charles Dibdin argued that Rosaline had been purposely included in the play to show how reckless the hero was and that this was the reason for his tragic end. Others argued that Friar Laurence might be Shakespeare's spokesman in his warnings against undue haste. With the advent of the 20th century, these moral arguments were disputed by critics such as Richard Green Moulton : he argued that accident, and not some character flaw, led to the lovers' deaths.
Before Mercutio's death in Act three, the play is largely a comedy. When Romeo is banished, rather than executed, and Friar Laurence offers Juliet a plan to reunite her with Romeo, the audience can still hope that all will end well. They are in a "breathless state of suspense" by the opening of the last scene in the tomb: If Romeo is delayed long enough for the Friar to arrive, he and Juliet may yet be saved.
For example, when the play begins, Romeo is in love with Rosaline, who has refused all of his advances. Romeo's infatuation with her stands in obvious contrast to his later love for Juliet. This provides a comparison through which the audience can see the seriousness of Romeo and Juliet's love and marriage.
Paris' love for Juliet also sets up a contrast between Juliet's feelings for him and her feelings for Romeo. The formal language she uses around Paris, as well as the way she talks about him to her Nurse, show that her feelings clearly lie with Romeo.
Beyond this, the sub-plot of the Montague—Capulet feud overarches the whole play, providing an atmosphere of hate that is the main contributor to the play's tragic end. He begins with a line prologue in the form of a Shakespearean sonnet , spoken by a Chorus. Most of Romeo and Juliet is, however, written in blank verse , and much of it in strict iambic pentameter , with less rhythmic variation than in most of Shakespeare's later plays.
Friar Laurence, for example, uses sermon and sententiae forms and the Nurse uses a unique blank verse form that closely matches colloquial speech. For example, when Romeo talks about Rosaline earlier in the play, he attempts to use the Petrarchan sonnet form.
Petrarchan sonnets were often used by men to exaggerate the beauty of women who were impossible for them to attain, as in Romeo's situation with Rosaline.
That hatred manifests itself directly in the lovers' language: Juliet, for example, speaks of "my only love sprung from my only hate"  and often expresses her passion through an anticipation of Romeo's death. When Tybalt kills Mercutio, Romeo shifts into this violent mode, regretting that Juliet has made him so "effeminate". The feud is also linked to male virility, as the numerous jokes about maidenheads aptly demonstrate. Other critics, such as Dympna Callaghan, look at the play's feminism from a historicist angle, stressing that when the play was written the feudal order was being challenged by increasingly centralised government and the advent of capitalism.
At the same time, emerging Puritan ideas about marriage were less concerned with the "evils of female sexuality" than those of earlier eras and more sympathetic towards love-matches: when Juliet dodges her father's attempt to force her to marry a man she has no feeling for, she is challenging the patriarchal order in a way that would not have been possible at an earlier time.
As Benvolio argues, she is best replaced by someone who will reciprocate. Shakespeare's procreation sonnets describe another young man who, like Romeo, is having trouble creating offspring and who may be seen as being a homosexual.
Goldberg believes that Shakespeare may have used Rosaline as a way to express homosexual problems of procreation in an acceptable way.
In this view, when Juliet says " He had Romeo walk frequently by her house, "sometimes climbing to her chamber window", and wrote, "It happened one night, as love ordained, when the moon shone unusually bright, that whilst Romeo was climbing the balcony, the young lady A few decades later, Bandello greatly expanded this scene, diverging from the familiar one: Julia has her nurse deliver a letter asking Romeo to come to her window with a rope ladder, and he climbs the balcony with the help of his servant, Julia and the nurse the servants discreetly withdraw after this.
Leveen suggested that during the 18th century, David Garrick chose to use a balcony in his adaptation and revival of Romeo and Juliet and modern adaptations have continued this tradition.