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There were also no reports found of deaf cricketers playing for hearing teams, although this cannot be taken as definitive evidence that talented individuals were not involved with local cricket clubs.
Other deaf club sporting and competitive activity Although there may be some debate about including chess in an analysis of sport, the game was very popular among deaf people from well before the Second World War, and there were a series of competitions organized by deaf aficionados. Gambits and discussions of matches featured in each issue of British Deaf Times in the pre-war years and interest in chess continued after the war, with the north-west particularly blessed with chess players.
In the entire England team for the match against M. Atherton Scotland was drawn from the north-west. Athletics featured during the summer months at regional and national levels, but there is no evidence of inter-club meetings.
Given the small number of potential competitors in each club, the costs of specialist equipment and the need for a suitable venue, the staging of formal athletics events may have been feasible at club level. There is some evidence of local events taking place in other parts of Britain, such as the annual walking race in Hull reported in , but these were not large- scale athletics meetings.
However, the lack of reports may well hide the true extent of participation, as reports in refer to a north-west badminton knock-out competition. Swimming was another sport which was not a regular feature in the reports from north-west deaf clubs. The majority of reports appeared during the s, with little before this period.
Both Manchester and Southport Deaf Clubs boasted medal winners at the national champion- ships of , while the national championships were held in Wigan in Perhaps this illustrates the underlying tension felt by many profoundly deaf people when they find themselves in direct competition with hearing people, even when that competition is for places on the same team.
No matter what their chosen sport or their level of proficiency, the stigma and barrier of perceived disability has always been keenly felt by deaf sportsmen and women, as the quote above demonstrates. Nationally popular sports such as netball, squash and angling hardly ever featured in BDN, with only three reports of deaf angling contests in the north-west, two reports relating to netball and nothing at all concerning squash.
Given that five-yearly samples were taken, it is expected that any major activities would feature at some point. If a particular sport had a short-lived popularity that is, for less than five years , then its impact within deaf sport must be questioned. Another factor is the need for specialist equipment and venues for sports such as netball, squash and tennis. Deaf people in the north-west may well have been joining clubs as individuals, M. Atherton but there is no evidence that they were joining as a group or team of deaf people to represent their local deaf club as happened in other sports.
Golf serves as a good example of this process.
As was mentioned earlier, Downloaded By: [Atherton, Martin] At: 15 June golf did not feature at all in the reports of north-west deaf sport from to However, deaf people were certainly playing the game, which involved joining local golf clubs.
Evidence provided by the British Deaf Golf Association indicates that deaf golfers of higher ability joined clubs on an individual basis, and played largely with and against hearing golfers. The greater the degree of integration, the less likely that such golfers would have their activities reported in BDN, as this activity was not part of the communal life of the deaf club. Those who preferred to join golf clubs in the company of other deaf players tended to socialize less outside their immediate group, but gained greater social benefits from playing in the company of their contemporaries.
A consequence of this restricted competition was that deaf social golfers did not develop their skills to the same extent and so typically had a higher handicap than their more integrated fellow deaf golfers.
In this aspect of the game, deaf golfers showed themselves to be no different from hearing golfers playing in similar circumstances. Again, this participation was not reported in BDN, indicating that even when taking part as a group, this was not an activity that formed part of the communal sporting life of the wider deaf club membership. For those deaf golfers who had limited communication with hearing people, it appears as with other sports that it was not possible to reap both types of benefit fully.
The lack of social rewards may have deterred many deaf golfers from taking up the game, when they could not do so in the company of those who could provide the social life which is an important part of sports participation.
The wider role of deaf sport Sport has performed an important role for deaf people beyond that of merely filling leisure time or providing physical exercise.
Do you want to come and join the deaf football l club? Club A would invite club B to take part in some sporting contest, to which many non-sporting members would also come along.
The sport itself was not necessarily the attraction, but it provided an opportunity for social contact with other deaf people and thus served as an important means by which the social cohesion of the deaf community was promoted and maintained.
Such events brought deaf people together not just locally, but also on a number of ever-wider geographical levels. Social events were a part and parcel of virtually every sporting event in the deaf community, emphasizing the close relationship between sport and wider leisure activities.
As with so many other deaf sporting events, even a chess tournament could be the basis for organizing a social gathering, with people attended the celebratory dinner that followed the championship.
De Pauw and Gavron outline some of the barriers faced by disabled sportsmen, which include a lack of organized sporting events, a lack of role models and psychological and sociological factors. Atherton become involved in certain sports, this is not an issue that is unique to deaf or indeed disabled people; many people from all sections of society have faced financial barriers to participation in sport.
The evidence Downloaded By: [Atherton, Martin] At: 15 June contained in the historical record of deaf sport clearly indicates that none of the other factors faced by disabled people, which also include access to appropriate facilities, have stopped deaf sportsmen and women from regularly taking part in a variety of sports. While deaf club members in north-west England were largely confined to participation in eleven different sports, deaf people in other areas were involved in various other sports.
This illustrates that there is in fact no physical restriction to deaf people taking part in any sport. Older deaf sportsmen and women served as role models and informal coaches, and the only issues of accessibility related to minor alterations in the way in which certain sports were controlled and decisions notified. Deaf sportsmen and women regularly took part in mainstream sport alongside hearing people, as well as in their own discrete events.
This is an often neglected but important aspect of deaf sport. In this respect, deaf sport provided access to a social life that was not generally available to disabled people.
When deaf sportsmen and women took part in segregated deaf-only events, this was generally as a matter of choice, sometimes based on social as much as sporting considerations, and was not because of any lack of ability based purely on their being deaf. The sporting history of the deaf community thus acts as an effective rebuttal of claims that deafness should be seen as a barrier to participation in a variety of sports.
Deaf people continue to face discrimination and exclusion from mainstream sport, as in so many aspects of their lives, because their deafness is viewed as a disabling factor.
Atherton  BDN , , pp. Badminton and table tennis are also popular sports in China. Prior to the s, sports were entirely funded by the government. Professionalization led to commercialization; this meant that sports associations became profit-making entities and that a club system and professional sports leagues were formed. Sports club operations now cover ticket sales, advertising, club transfers, commercial matches, and television broadcasting. China led the gold medal count 48 at the Summer Olympics in Beijing.
The event was scheduled for August 8 to August 24, because the number 8 is a lucky number in Chinese culture. Beijing is hosting the Winter Olympics. Dragon boat racing dates back about years ago and remains a traditional event held around China every year. There is evidence that Cuju , the prototype to football , was invented in China during the 2nd and 3rd centuries BC before it spread all over the world to form the modern game. From the Song dynasty on T'ai chi ch'uan and similar qigong martial arts activities became popular in China.
The influx of modern sports appeared in China since the beginning of the 20th century. The People's Republic of China emphasizes sports and the government funds and trains talented youngsters into professional players, especially beginning in the midth century.
Ping pong is one of the biggest amateur recreational sports with an estimated million players. Badminton is also well established and popular. Football and basketball are also shown on TV. Popular amateur sports include table tennis , badminton , martial arts , and various forms of pool. China's professional sports are in its developmental stages. They also may consist of hacky sack, or ping pong during their free time. Football is the most popular spectator sport in the country  and has been one of the most well supported sports in China ever since it was introduced in the s.
Its headquarters is located in Beijing, and the current chairman is Cai Zhenhua. The Chinese Super League is the premier football league in China, which was changed from "jia A" in , as the top of a league hierarchy that extends to four leagues.
Jia in Chinese also means "First" or "Best". Since its foundation the Super League has been relatively unstable, and has struggled to maintain popularity.
In the average attendance of the CSL was 24, making it one of the highest attending professional football league around the world.
At the international level, Chinese football has enjoyed little success despite the amount of support it receives from fans. Although the national team qualified for the FIFA World Cup , they failed to score a single goal and lost 3 group matches. Conversely, the women's national team has finished second at both the World Championships and the Olympic Games. Despite the Chinese women's team's success at international competitions, however, women's football in China does not receive nearly as much attention as their counterparts in Canada and the United States, therefore China's good trend in women's football may well come to an end in the near future.
Football has always been among the more popular amateur team sports for recreation in China. High schools often have football facilities, some of which are rented on weekends to local amateur teams to organize matches. It is also the most popular sport to watch on television, with large international tournaments such as the World Cup and the European Championships, as well as major European leagues receiving widespread coverage.
Badminton is popular in China thanks to its relative simplicity in recreational use and inexpensive equipment. It is a popular recreational, and professional sport, with amateur leagues throughout the country. However, China national bandy team debuted in the Bandy World Championship.
A picture of the team based in Harbin is available online.
The China women's national bandy team made its World Championship debut in China has announced its intention to participate in both the men's and women's tournament of the Winter Universiade. In terms of licensed athletes, it is the second biggest winter sport in the world. Baseball was first introduced in with the establishment of the Shanghai Baseball Club by American medical missionary Henry William Boone.
However, in Mao Zedong disbanded all the teams and outlawed baseball. After the Cultural Revolution ended, baseball activities restarted, and the China Baseball Association formed in Defeats of the national team to Republic of China , Japan , and South Korea may help change the trend as Chinese become more aware of the game's internationalization. According to the Chinese Basketball Association , there is a record number of around million active basketball players in China.
Virtually the whole nation stands glued to their television sets, amid parties and wild celebrations. China's first professional team was started in Shenyang and sponsored by the Anshan Steel Company. The CBA was established in , and by it had expanded to 18 teams. Bodybuilding was introduced to China in the s, before being banned in and making a reappearance in when the ban was officially lifted.
Boxing in China first appeared in the s. Professional boxing is followed by some fans in China. China had a good result in the 37th Chess Olympiad in Turin when the men's team came second behind Armenia and the women's team third for the best result overall.
The Chinese progress has been underpinned by large government support and testing competition in numerous tough events. Commensurate with its status, China currently has seven hundred players, second only to Russia. However, even today countries like Russia and Israel still have an edge in experience over their Chinese counterparts.
Xiangqi is also considered a sport in China, with millions of players nationwide. There is a national Chinese chess league. Cricket is a fast-growing sport in China.
The Chinese cricket team is the team that represents the country of the People's Republic of China in international cricket. Hence, players from Hong Kong are not eligible to represent China in international competition. Prior to the establishment of a recognized national side, the Shanghai Cricket Club , the largest club in the country, played games against many touring sides but they do not receive official recognition from the Chinese Cricket Association. More than schools were involved.
In the Chinese Cricket Association set itself ambitious goals over the next 14 years: Although generally unheard of and unpopular, curling has been an improving sport for China to play. At the World Men's Curling Championship, the Chinese didn't have as much success, but they also did very well, finishing 4th.
The government is also hoping to promote the sport through Universities and Colleges. The China women's national field hockey team won silver at the Summer Olympics in Beijing, as well as bronze at the Women's Hockey World Cup.
Also, the team won the Hockey Champions Trophy and finished second in and Since the s, China has been one of the top nations in the pairs events of figure skating. Shen Xue and Zhao Hongbo were very famous figure skating pair in China that received widespread media coverage during their career; they were three-time world champions and won a gold medal in Vancouver Winter Olympics The most successful Chinese male golfer has been Zhang Lian-wei.
The most successful Chinese female golfer is Feng Shanshan. At the amateur level, golf is seen as the top recreational sport for businesspeople and officials.
Because of their relatively high position in Chinese society, they are usually the only people with access to the sport of golf on mainland China. At the National People's Congress , caving in to the popular acknowledgment that the building of new golf courses is not only a waste of public funds but an illegal use of space, Premier Wen Jiabao said in his Work Report to the Congress that contracts in building new golf courses should be highly discouraged and Communist party officials are banned from playing.
Ice hockey is a minority sport but growing in popularity. Kickboxing promotions such as Kunlun Fight have been started in recent years.
People liked me a lot God gave me the chance. Although they were ensnared in the middle of crises, various opportunities were given to them. Some of them managed to obtain asylum status, which allowed them to stay affiliated to their host countries. Comprehensive data on their background information is shown in Table 2.
Table 2: The founder of AGIL theory, Talcott Parsons, is well-known for his vast contributions of thought in the field of social sciences, particularly economics and sociology. One of his most significant contributions to the field of sociology is the AGIL framework, which was used in this paper for data analysis. We feel that the determinant causes of refugees could be due to some push and pull factors that triggered their movement to other nations.
In order to justify the functional theories, the basic principles of AGIL and its connection with the issues of refugees in sports should be explained. It is considered as a scheme or paradigm by many functionalists.
The Integration and Latency phases are associated with cultural and social systems. Parsons thought on AGIL is also linked to voluntary actions, which are based on: As indicated in Diagram 1, all refugee athletes who competed in Rio had adapted to the new cultural and social systems in their host countries, motivated by their desire to obtain their ultimate goal to compete in the Olympic Games. In order to adapt to the in the new places, they were required to embrace new norms and values in the new host nations.
Most indispensably, all these athletes had voluntarily decided and taken actions to move to other host nations, despite the potential limitations that they would encounter. Diagram 1: Pull and push factors are two contradictory forces that trigger human migration from one place to another. Pull factors are the appealing aspects that make people go to one place while push factors are those matters that force people to leave their place of origin.
In the case of this paper, for example, the refugee athletes were mainly forced to leave their countries due to political instability occurred in their country of origin — push factors.
Simultaneously, the driving factors such as new sporting opportunity provided in the new adopted homes — pull factors. Diagram 2: Recommendations The participation of the Refugee Team in the Olympics reveals the great potential for sport to function as a powerful tool for development and peace. Today, sport is seen as a serious agenda and contributes to the inclusion of refugees throughout the world. The decision of the IOC to put together refugees and asylum seekers as a team should be acknowledged.
Indirectly, this act will call others to create a better world. This is fully in the spirit of the Olympics as envisaged by Coubertin. This opportunity is rare and not a privilege they can access in their countries of origin. They also lost their training grounds and the supporting infrastructure upon which high-level athletes depend. By virtue of their Olympic participation, they regained control of their lives once more.
At this point, the researchers would like to highlight a few recommendations based on the findings. Common Ground, , An evaluation of policy and practice in the UK Loughborough: National Policies and Strategies, ed. Oliver Dudfield, London: Marlborough House, Commonwealth Secretariat, , Cultures, Commerce, Media, Politics 7, no. CSR programmes are important to ensure solid preparation for athletes to compete in the Olympics and Paralympics.
With sufficient help from these companies, the athletes refugees can train and participate in the competitions prior to the Olympic Games. Multi-event sports programs such as the Olympics, Paralympics, and Commonwealth Games carry some identities and images.
Their events are considered prestigious and robust. This unique opportunity will surely spur the image of sponsoring companies and enable them to genuinely enhance the lives of millions of disadvantaged people, including the athletes themselves and those they inspire. Emerald Publishing Limited, , , https: The Malaysian government has traditionally made substantial efforts to improve sport performances, apart from having the policy of sport for all and sport as an industry.
Perhaps, this issue needs to be addressed at the ministry level so that the study on society, sport and culture can be seen as equally substantial. Truly, what has been experienced by the refugee athletes serves as a reminder for all of us. Conclusion In conclusion, the participation of refugee athletes in Rio was substantial.
The aim of their participation is not merely to win but to celebrate the meaning of free will participation.