6 days ago Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Article (PDF Available) in Algorithms for Molecular Biology 9 · July with 6, Reads. PDF | There is a growing interest among agent and multiagent system developers for formal methods. Formal methods are means to define and realize correct. Module Notes. First Year. Part A. Principles of Programming · Introduction to Digital Circuit Design · Introduction to Computer Systems.
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The single most important skill in programming, computer science, and science in general is actions. Computer Science is not the study of computers, nor is it the practice of their use. .. Streams. See notes elsewhere. MADE Easy Class Notes Computer Science & IT Hand Written: This is Computer Science & IT study material for GATE / IES / PSUs exam preparation in the form. Lecture Notes in. Computer Science. Edited by G. Goos and J. Hartmanis. Reiner Lenz. Group Theoretical Methods in Image Processing. Springer-Verlag.
The principle of work is the same as that of the CD; sound is recorded in them in digital form. Data is recorded beneath the transparent layer that cover the surface of the CD by burning a permanent pattern into the surface of the disk by means of a laser beam. Reading the data is also by a laser beam in an optical disk recorder. The capacity of a CD is usually about - MB.
One advantage of CDs to magnetic disks is that loosing of data is not as rampant as with the latter. One disadvantage is that some i. Reading from the CDs tends to be slower than that of the magnetic disks. The top of the time disk unit manufactured by IBM doe example, stores more than 2. Data Car-tridge System store data in series of 50 MB cartridges. These devices provide up to half a million bytes of on line storage. The operation is similar to that of other secondary storage devices.
Cartridge systems are slower than disk systems because they involve more physical movements. It is what tells the computer what to do when you issue a command or when you switch on the computer. Within the set of system software, we find a set of programs called Operating Systems.
The latter is usually defined as a set of programs that standardize the way a computer's resources are made available to the user and to applications software. The resources here refer to the hardware components of the computer. Such memories are usually reserved for such data of the operating system that the user must not modify or inadvertently delete. It is usually protected by the manner in which it is manufactured.
ROM is used to store programs and data that are essential for the proper operation of the computer system and of the application program that are integral parts of the operation.
ROM is non - volatile; this means whatever is stored in such memory remains whether or not the power is on. RAM - discussed earlier is volatile. System software also has what we refer to as Utility Programs for File management, editing files, management of disks and so on. These are commands resident in system software. Application software is usually divided into 2 categories: i Standard Packages or Application Packages General Application Software These are packages that are designed to be used to solve a particular type of problem for example Lotus , Ms Excel are all spreadsheet packages meant to be applied in accounting operation only.
Word perfect, Ms-Word are all word processors. D-base 4, Ms Access are database packages and so on. Usually, a user will give a specification to a programmer of the suite he wants to be developed to meet his business or individual needs.
This kind of software is only restricted to solving problems to which it is programmed to solve. Tailor made software is sometimes known as Bespoke Packages. Software are programs that are used to run the computer together with the associated documentation.
A complete computer system comprises the operating system, system software, application program and hardware. Storage Devices are in two forms: Primary Storage devices, the Main Memory and Secondary Storage devices which supplements the main memory.
Q Input devices include: Keyboard, mouse, paper scanner and magnetic ink holder. Other data capture methods include: speech, magnetic, optical character readers and optical mark reader.
Secondary storage media and devices include: Magnetic tapes and disks, optical disks and mass storage media. System software are programs that control the entire operation of the computer together with the associated documentation. An application program is software that is usually applied on one area of operations only.
They could be standard packages or user developed packages. Differentiate between hardware and software in a computer. What does computer hardware consist of: 3. Discuss the functions of components of a computer hardware system. A complete computer system comprises of which components?
Discuss any 4 input devices. Discuss any 4 output devices 7. What do you understand by secondary storage devices? Discuss any three backing storage media and devices. Distinguish between System Software and Application Software.
What is an Operating System? What are Utilities? What are the two types of Application Software? Chapter 3 Safe Use and Care of Computers This chapter lets the student to be aware of the computer, its safety rules and how to apply them. The safety rules to be observed regard personnel, materials and equipment in the computer laboratory.
The student is also expected to state correctly safety precautions required in the lab and be able to identify possible causes of loss of data and their precautions.
One factor to be taken into consideration is the cost involved in setting up the lab including the cost of equipment. This should not be taken for granted and computers and other peripherals damaged in the short run could result in great losses to the organization. Cleanliness is a factor that stands out in the lab.
The personnel need to be clean while in the lab.
Foodstuffs to the lab is not allowed as the broken pieces from such will ultimately find their way into the peripherals e. Depending on what material cover is on the floor, certain shoes tend to cause a lot of distraction by making noise to the rest of the seated personnel.
This slows down the work process as attention will definitely be shifted. External disks into the lab are not recommended as this may result in virus infection to the system in the lab from outside sources Internal disks should not be allowed to leave the room. Some stringent procedures should be laid down to check the personnel who ignore the rule. If this is not observed, it may lead to data from the organization being exposed to rivals or would be "hackers" - those who gain access to the system without authority.
Any mechanical or technical faults noted should always be reported to the technical personnel immediately for attention. Non-technical personnel should never attempt to deal with such a fault! It is important also that every personnel make routine backup copies of every work done in the lab as this will save the organization from any data loss in the event of disaster.
Shutting down and booting of computers is very important. Strict procedures depending on the operating system specification should be adhered to, otherwise damages to the disk in the long run and fragmentation of files and storage in the storage location will happen. This will cause delays in reading and writing to the same. All equipment should not be moved around the lab rather they should always be used where they are installed! Changing of peripherals from one machine to another is not an encouraged practice.
Let a mouse meant for machine A remain the machine; if it does not work, please ask a technical personnel to attend to it, but do not interchange it with another!
In other words, some disks and special machines like a server in the case of a network should not be for everyone, only those authorized should be allowed for example to keep installation disks and so on. Generally the computers and peripherals in the laboratory should always be handled with care since all of them have soldered electronic parts within them that when poorly handled and perhaps dropped then such parts will always either break or be dislocated.
This will mean the equipment is damaged. It is recommended that every movement to machines in the lab be done using a trolley. No equipment should ever leave the lab unless with direct authority from the right person. Computer cables should, if detached, be properly returned each to the right machine.
Technical operations in the lab should be left for only technical personnel. If every Tom, Dick and Harry in the lab assume to repair eve damaged equipment, then more will be worse off than they were. Disks should be kept from natural hazards like excessive temperatures, water and dust places and a way from magnets if data integrity is to be maintained.
Fire is a big threat to data loss and equipment. Every lab should always offer training of how to handle fir in thee event of such calamity and of course fir-fighting equipment like fire extinguishers for example hand held CO2 and BCF extinguishers should always be available.
Data should also always be kept in fireproof safes to avoid loss of data loss in such event. Insuring of equipment and software in the organization with insurance firms will help since after such an accident, the firm is paid. False floors and ceilings should always be available for chemicals like fluorocarbon fluid used as a cooling agent for mainframe. Such pipes and ducts should pass either up on false ceilings or below false floors.
Combustible materials like fire extinguishers should be located in places visible to everyone but with strict instructions to be touched only in the event of a fire break out. Other materials that could be harmful to the environment should be transmitted through properly located ducts. Such windows must not be very wide as such will always be vulnerable to entry by intruders. Any ventilation apart from the window should always be higher up and very small in size.
Cables put haphazardly may result in possible power disconnection if stepped on or pushed around. Electricity suaci. As a precaution, large batteries, Uninterrupted Power Supply UPS and generators should always be on standby to such a crisis.
This is a physical security measure since this will avert any attempts by intruders to break in and interfere with data and equipment in the lab. It should also provide for an emergency exit. NB: Slippery floors are not recommended in a computer lab. Such a floor if there is should be covered with mats and the like. Vdu Legislation This is a legislation British that was passed in for frequent users of computer screens in the lab.
It states as follows: 1. One should not use a computer for more than one hour continuously. The distance from the screen should be between mmmm. While using the keyboard, the arms and elbows should be at right angles and parallel to the ground. The seats and desks in the lab should be adjustable to the users height this is to aid iv and avoid Repetitive Strains Injuries RSI of the fingers and wrists.
The seats should have backrests! All seats in the lab should be fitted with castors - to make them mobile and less noisy. NB: An Anti-glare screen is still recommended.
Computer Lab Design Before we look at the safety regulations in the lab, it is vital to look at what factors must be put into consideration when designing a computer room. Constraints of Computer Room The following requirements must be observed in any computer room design: The need for air conditioning The dimensions of size of the lab The need to observe cleanliness Equipment sitting in the lab Accessibility for machinery maintenance and media re-supply.
Consideration for health and safety Consideration for noise Air Conditioning Air conditioning is very essential in the computer room where main frames are housed or some minicomputers together with their associated peripherals.
Most devices however, usually contain their own environmental controls that are automatic for example fans, filters and sealed units. Processors with highly packed electronics require high levels of cleanliness. To help keep high level of cleanliness, the lab should have positive pressure, air lock and sticking nuts on the floors.
Accessibility While installing equipment in the lab, there must be a provision for a through route, which is also important for emergency exit. Only for security purposes should such a route be closed. Corridors of the lab must be high enough with double doors and floors, stairs or lifts must be strong enough t bear the load of equipment. It is often recommended that ground floor should be used but this again has many security risks.
Reception should always be spacious enough to allow for storage of trolleys used for moving equipment around the lab. Equipment Sitting Design of the sitting equipment should always be such that it ensures the workflow of the operator and minimizes the walking distance fromone This means for example that the location of a stand-alone computer and the printer should be close enough to ease the work!
Health and Safety For the sake of health and safety of the staff and equipment, the following should be observed: a Lighting There should be a provision for large lighting so as to avoid minimized reflections and glare. A further provision should be for emergency lighting. This will allow for quick action and reaction in the event of a fire break out. Automatic detection of smoke and electrocuting system should be provided for.
In the computer room, there should be hand held Coe and BCF extinguishers. The personnel should be given evacuation training in the event of the fire break out. No water pipes should be placed under, over or in the computer rooms. This is because water is likely to destroy equipment, programs and data in the lab. Problems with power supply come in three main forms: i Supply interruption - is caused by a number of factors that include transformer failure, cutting of supply lines by accident, by people, lightening and so on.
The problem caused by spikes is generally loss of data as soon as power is removed. Disk files also get corrupted when store cycles are interrupted by removal of power. Such fluctuations normally do not have effect since in most computers, there are power supply units that are designed to adequately cope with any small fluctuations Problems caused by voltage frequency variations is generally loss of users in the sense that terminal links get broken in those parts of a network whose power is interrupted or destroyed.
So this problem is normally experienced when computers are networked. If they differ, a communication error probably occurred.
Which is the most suitable for any given application Implications for the user MF TF Batch Processing Systems In broad terms, a batch processing system is one in which a job is processed without any direct interaction between the job and the user. A master file of data is updated using a transaction file that contains all of the changes that have occurred to the data since the last update.
The result is a new master file. Merge New MF Single-User Online Systems Online systems provide for interaction between the job and the user, which may influence the future course of processing. Typical applications are online information retrieval e. An example is when you have a word-processor, a spreadsheet and a CD player all running at once. The computer is multi-tasking. Real-Time Systems A real-time transaction system is an online system in which individual, discrete transactions are processed as they occur.
An airline booking system and an online stock control system are typical examples. A real-time control system is a system in which physical quantities are continuously monitored and processed sufficiently rapidly to be capable of influencing the sources of data.
A chemical plant, or an autopilot system in an aircraft are examples. The International School Seychelles 28 IGCSE Computer Studies Syllabus Control Systems In a control system, one or more computers is used to control the operation of some non-computer equipment, usually involving some monitoring and logging of physical quantities, providing some analysis of performance and allowing some user interaction. Feedback is an essential element in most control systems.
Timing considerations are often critical and the term real-time control system is sometimes used to indicate this. Control systems are used in applications such as oil refining, chemical processing and integrated traffic-control systems. Cognitive Psychology 4. Cognitive Sociology 1. Combinatorics 1. Communication Communications Engineering Compensation and Reward Management 1. Compiler Construction Compiler Design Compilers Complexity Theory 5.
Computational and Statistical Data Analysis 4. Computational Biology 9. Computational Methods Computational Physics Computational Techniques Computer Applications Computer Architecture and Organization Computer Communication Systems Computer Engineering and Programming Computer Fundamentals Computer Graphics Computer Graphics and Animation Computer Integrated Manufacturing Computer Network Management and Protocols Computer Networks Computer Numerical Control Computer Programming Computer Science Computer Security Computer System Design and Architecture Computer Systems Networking and Telecommunications Computer Vision Computer-Aided Design for Engineers Computer-Aided Power System Analysis Computers and Information technologies Conjunctive Queries 5.
Construction 1. Contemporary History 1. Contemporary Sociology 1. Contract Law 1. Control Systems 8. Control Systems Analysis Convex Optimization Cooperative Governance 1. Copyright Law 3. Corporate Law Cryptography and System Security Cybercrime, Cybersecurity and Data Privacy 3.
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Dynamics 2. Economics 1. Education Planning And Management 1. Effective Business Communication 1. Effective Business Report Writing 4. Electric Machines Electrical and Electronics Engineering 2. Electrical Circuit Analysis Electrical Engineering Electromagnetic Engineering 8.
Electromagnetism and Electromagnetic Fields Theory 3. Electronic Circuits Design 4. Electronic Measurement and Instrumentation 3. Electronics Electronics engineering 1. Elementary Mathematics Embedded Control Systems 1. Embedded Systems 2. Embedded Wireless Sensors 1. Energy and Environment 2. Energy Efficiency 2. Engineering Engineering Drawing and Graphics 5. Engineering Mathematics 2. Engineering Physics Engineering Systems Analysis 1.
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