The Prince is a 16th-century political treatise by the Italian diplomat and political theorist . Machiavelli says that The Prince would be about princedoms, mentioning notes that this chapter is quite atypical of any previous books for princes. Machiavelli's highly influential treatise on political power The Prince shocked as well as the character of its author, Niccolò Machiavelli, since the book's. The Prince [Niccolo Machiavelli] on terney.info The Prince (Macmillan Collector's Library) and millions of other books are available for instant access. view.
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Download free eBooks of classic literature, books and novels at Planet eBook. nished Machiavelli with a subject of a gibe in 'The Prince,' where he is cited as. The Prince by Niccolo Machiavelli. To the great Lorenzo Di Piero De Medici. Those who try to obtain the favourable attention of a prince are accustomed to come. The Prince book. Read reviews from the world's largest community for readers. Machiavelli needs to be looked at as he really was. Hence: Can Machia. .
If you dig beneath the surface of what he is saying, the information can be transported to our time and used. Above all, he must read history so that he can do what eminent men have done before him….
We could make this more relevant to us by interpreting it to mean that we must read history and study the actions of successful men and women to discover the reasons for their successes and failures to imitate their successes.
If you cannot view the video click here. After you have read The Prince, what parallels can you make to events occurring in our world today? What are your great ideas? Although The Prince was first published in after his death , he wrote it in Machiavelli wrote his timeless classic to regain favor with the Medici family.
The prince he refers to in his book, is Lorenzo Medici. The Theses went viral, and in , he was called before Cardinal Cajetan, and commanded to renounce his theses, which he refused. I can do no other. Related Post: Lectures on Modern European Intellectual History: It includes 26 chapters and an opening dedication to Lorenzo de Medici. The dedication declares Machiavelli's intention to discuss in plain language the conduct of great men and the principles of princely government.
He does so in hope of pleasing and enlightening the Medici family. The book's 26 chapters can be divided into four sections: Chapters discuss the different types of principalities or states, Chapters discuss the different types of armies and the proper conduct of a prince as military leader, Chapters discuss the character and behavior of the prince, and Chapters discuss Italy's desperate political situation.
The final chapter is a plea for the Medici family to supply the prince who will lead Italy out of humiliation. Hereditary principalities, which are inherited by the ruler Mixed principalities, territories that are annexed to the ruler's existing territories.
New principalities, which may be acquired by several methods: Ecclesiastical principalities, namely the Papal States belonging to the Catholic church. A prince must always pay close attention to military affairs if he wants to remain in power. Machiavelli lists four types of armies:.
Finally, Machiavelli makes a point that bringing new benefits to a conquered people will not be enough to cancel the memory of old injuries, an idea Allan Gilbert said can be found in Tacitus and Seneca the Younger. Machiavelli's offers two rulers to imitate, Agathocles of Syracuse , and Oliverotto Euffreducci.
After Agathocles became Praetor of Syracuse, he called a meeting of the city's elite. At his signal, his soldiers killed all the senators and the wealthiest citizens, completely destroying the old oligarchy. He declared himself ruler with no opposition. So secure was his power that he could afford to absent himself to go off on military campaigns in Africa. Machiavelli then states that the behavior of Agathocles is not simply virtue, as he says, "Yet one cannot call it virtue to kill one's citizens, betray one's friends, to be without faith, without mercy, without religion; these modes can enable one to acquire empire, but not glory.
Thus, one cannot attribute to fortune or virtue what he achieved without either. After he laid siege to the city and terrified the citizenry, he had then set himself to be ruler of the city. However, in an ironic twist, Oliverotto was killed the same way his opponents were, as Cesare Borgia had him strangled after he invited Oliverotto to a friendly setting. Machiavelli advises that a prince should carefully calculate all the wicked deeds he needs to do to secure his power, and then execute them all in one stroke, such that he need not commit any more wickedness for the rest of his reign.
In this way, his subjects will slowly forget his cruel deeds and his reputation can recover.
Princes who fail to do this, who hesitate in their ruthlessness, find that their problems mushroom over time and they are forced to commit wicked deeds throughout their reign.
Thus they continuously mar their reputations and alienate their people. Gilbert —55 remarks that this chapter is even less traditional than those it follows, not only in its treatment of criminal behavior, but also in the advice to take power from people at a stroke, noting that precisely the opposite had been advised by Aristotle in his Politics 5.
On the other hand, Gilbert shows that another piece of advice in this chapter, to give benefits when it will not appear forced, was traditional. Becoming a prince by the selection of one's fellow citizens Chapter 9 [ edit ] A "civil principality" is one in which a citizen comes to power "not through crime or other intolerable violence", but by the support of his fellow citizens. Machiavelli makes an important distinction between two groups that are present in every city, and have very different appetites driving them: the "great" and the "people".
The "great" wish to oppress and rule the "people", while the "people" wish not to be ruled or oppressed. A principality is not the only outcome possible from these appetites, because it can also lead to either "liberty" or "license".
A principality is put into place either by the "great" or the "people" when they have the opportunity to take power, but find resistance from the other side. They assign a leader who can be popular to the people while the great benefit, or a strong authority defending the people against the great. Machiavelli goes on to say that a prince who obtains power through the support of the nobles has a harder time staying in power than someone who is chosen by the common people; since the former finds himself surrounded by people who consider themselves his equals.
He has to resort to malevolent measures to satisfy the nobles. One cannot by fair dealing, and without injury to others, satisfy the nobles, but you can satisfy the people, for their object is more righteous than that of the nobles, the latter wishing to oppress, while the former only desire not to be oppressed.
Also a prince cannot afford to keep the common people hostile as they are larger in number while the nobles smaller. Therefore the great should be made and unmade every day. There are two types of great people that might be encountered: Those who are bound to the prince.
Concerning these it is important to distinguish between two types of obligated great people, those who are rapacious and those who are not. It is the latter who can and should be honoured.
Those who are not bound to the new prince. Once again these need to be divided into two types: those with a weak spirit a prince can make use of them if they are of good counsel and those who shun being bound because of their own ambition these should be watched and feared as enemies.
How to win over people depends on circumstances. Machiavelli advises: Do not get frightened in adversity. One should make sure that the people need the prince, especially if a time of need should come. How to judge the strength of principalities Chapter 10 [ edit ] The way to judge the strength of a princedom is to see whether it can defend itself, or whether it needs to depend on allies.
This does not just mean that the cities should be prepared and the people trained; a prince who is hated is also exposed. Ecclesiastical principates Chapter 11 [ edit ] Leo X : a pope, but also a member of the Medici family. Machiavelli suggested they should treat the church as a princedom, as the Borgia family had, in order to conquer Italy, and found new modes and orders.
This type of "princedom" refers for example explicitly to the Catholic church, which is of course not traditionally thought of as a princedom. According to Machiavelli, these are relatively easy to maintain, once founded. They do not need to defend themselves militarily, nor to govern their subjects. Machiavelli discusses the recent history of the Church as if it were a princedom that was in competition to conquer Italy against other princes.
He points to factionalism as a historical weak point in the Church, and points to the recent example of the Borgia family as a better strategy which almost worked. He then explicitly proposes that the Medici are now in a position to try the same thing. Defense and military Chapter 12—14 [ edit ] Having discussed the various types of principalities , Machiavelli turns to the ways a state can attack other territories or defend itself.
The two most essential foundations for any state, whether old or new, are sound laws and strong military forces. He should be "armed" with his own arms. However, a prince that relies solely on fortifications or on the help of others and stands on the defensive is not self-sufficient.
If he cannot raise a formidable army, but must rely on defense, he must fortify his city. A well-fortified city is unlikely to be attacked, and if it is, most armies cannot endure an extended siege. However, during a siege a virtuous prince will keep the morale of his subjects high while removing all dissenters. Thus, as long as the city is properly defended and has enough supplies, a wise prince can withstand any siege.
Machiavelli stands strongly against the use of mercenaries , and in this he was innovative, and he also had personal experience in Florence. He believes they are useless to a ruler because they are undisciplined, cowardly, and without any loyalty, being motivated only by money. Machiavelli also warns against using auxiliary forces, troops borrowed from an ally, because if they win, the employer is under their favor and if they lose, he is ruined.
Auxiliary forces are more dangerous than mercenary forces because they are united and controlled by capable leaders who may turn against the employer. The main concern for a prince should be war, or the preparation thereof, not books. Through war a hereditary prince maintains his power or a private citizen rises to power. Machiavelli advises that a prince must frequently hunt in order to keep his body fit and learn the landscape surrounding his kingdom.
Through this, he can best learn how to protect his territory and advance upon others. For intellectual strength, he is advised to study great military men so he may imitate their successes and avoid their mistakes. A prince who is diligent in times of peace will be ready in times of adversity. However, the advice is far from traditional. A Prince's Duty Concerning Military Matters Chapter 14 [ edit ] Machiavelli believes that a prince's main focus should be on perfecting the art of war.
He believes that by taking this profession an aspiring prince will be able to acquire a state, and will be able to maintain what he has gained. He claims that "being disarmed makes you despised. The two activities Machiavelli recommends practicing to prepare for war are physical and mental. Physically, he believes rulers should learn the landscape of their territories. Mentally, he encouraged the study of past military events.
He also warns against idleness. Machiavelli reasons that since princes come across men who are evil, he should learn how to be as equally evil himself, and use this ability or not according to necessity.
Concerning the behavior of a prince toward his subjects, Machiavelli announces that he will depart from what other writers say, and writes: Men have imagined republics and principalities that never really existed at all.
Yet the way men live is so far removed from the way they ought to live that anyone who abandons what is for what should be pursues his downfall rather than his preservation; for a man who strives after goodness in all his acts is sure to come to ruin, since there are so many men who are not good.
Since there are many possible qualities that a prince can be said to possess, he must not be overly concerned about having all the good ones. Also, a prince may be perceived to be merciful, faithful, humane, frank, and religious, but most important is only to seem to have these qualities.
A prince cannot truly have these qualities because at times it is necessary to act against them. In fact, he must sometimes deliberately choose evil. Although a bad reputation should be avoided, it is sometimes necessary to have one.
Generosity vs. Additionally, being overly generous is not economical, because eventually all resources will be exhausted. This results in higher taxes, and will bring grief upon the prince. Then, if he decides to discontinue or limit his generosity, he will be labeled as a miser. A wise prince should be willing to be more reputed a miser than be hated for trying to be too generous.