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Use the link below to share a full-text version of this article with your friends and colleagues. Learn more. We present a method for synthesizing two dimensional 2D element arrangements from an example. Our synthesis process starts with a single seed and progressively places elements one by one by searching a reference element which has local features that are the most similar to the target place of the synthesized pattern.
To support creative design activities, we introduce three types of interaction for controlling global features of the resulting pattern, namely a spray tool, a flow field tool, and a boundary tool. We also introduce a global optimization process that helps to avoid local error concentrations. We illustrate the feasibility of our method by creating several types of 2D patterns.
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Computer Graphics Forum Volume 27, Issue 2.
First published: Tools Request permission Export citation Add to favorites Track citation. Share Give access Share full text access. Share full text access. Where an object is intersected, the color value at the point may be evaluated using several methods.
In the simplest, the color value of the object at the point of intersection becomes the value of that pixel. The color may be determined from a texture-map. A more sophisticated method is to modify the colour value by an illumination factor, but without calculating the relationship to a simulated light source. To reduce artifacts, a number of rays in slightly different directions may be averaged.
Ray casting involves calculating the "view direction" from camera position , and incrementally following along that "ray cast" through "solid 3d objects" in the scene, while accumulating the resulting value from each point in 3D space. This is related and similar to "ray tracing" except that the raycast is usually not "bounced" off surfaces where the "ray tracing" indicates that it is tracing out the lights path including bounces.
The ray cast is a vector that can originate from the camera or from the scene endpoint "back to front", or "front to back". Sometimes the final light value is a derived from a "transfer function" and sometimes it's used directly.
Rough simulations of optical properties may be additionally employed: a simple calculation of the ray from the object to the point of view is made. Another calculation is made of the angle of incidence of light rays from the light source s , and from these as well as the specified intensities of the light sources, the value of the pixel is calculated.
Another simulation uses illumination plotted from a radiosity algorithm, or a combination of these two.
Main article: Ray tracing graphics Ray tracing aims to simulate the natural flow of light, interpreted as particles. Often, ray tracing methods are utilized to approximate the solution to the rendering equation by applying Monte Carlo methods to it.
Some of the most used methods are path tracing , bidirectional path tracing , or Metropolis light transport , but also semi realistic methods are in use, like Whitted Style Ray Tracing , or hybrids.
While most implementations let light propagate on straight lines, applications exist to simulate relativistic spacetime effects.
Once the ray either encounters a light source, or more probably once a set limiting number of bounces has been evaluated, then the surface illumination at that final point is evaluated using techniques described above, and the changes along the way through the various bounces evaluated to estimate a value observed at the point of view. This is all repeated for each sample, for each pixel.
In distribution ray tracing , at each point of intersection, multiple rays may be spawned. In path tracing , however, only a single ray or none is fired at each intersection, utilizing the statistical nature of Monte Carlo experiments. As a brute-force method, ray tracing has been too slow to consider for real-time, and until recently too slow even to consider for short films of any degree of quality, although it has been used for special effects sequences, and in advertising, where a short portion of high quality perhaps even photorealistic footage is required.
However, efforts at optimizing to reduce the number of calculations needed in portions of a work where detail is not high or does not depend on ray tracing features have led to a realistic possibility of wider use of ray tracing. There is now some hardware accelerated ray tracing equipment, at least in prototype phase, and some game demos which show use of real-time software or hardware ray tracing.
Main article: Radiosity computer graphics Radiosity is a method which attempts to simulate the way in which directly illuminated surfaces act as indirect light sources that illuminate other surfaces. This produces more realistic shading and seems to better capture the ' ambience ' of an indoor scene.
A classic example is the way that shadows 'hug' the corners of rooms. The optical basis of the simulation is that some diffused light from a given point on a given surface is reflected in a large spectrum of directions and illuminates the area around it.
The simulation technique may vary in complexity. Many renderings have a very rough estimate of radiosity, simply illuminating an entire scene very slightly with a factor known as ambiance. However, when advanced radiosity estimation is coupled with a high quality ray tracing algorithm, images may exhibit convincing realism, particularly for indoor scenes.