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The first regards the publication of Senate committee recommenda- tions. It calls for two new bodies to be set up to investigate cults and to make them pay tax or shut down. In April these charges were dismissed before trial on grounds of insufficient evidence, the fact that the alleged form of obstruction committed by the Scientologist was not considered a crime at the time of the alleged incidents of child abuse, and amid suggestions of politicking by Xenophon.
Among these are the nego- tiation between elite influence and popular appeal; coverage techniques; content factors;46 media ownership; and the role of celebrity.
What follows is an analysis of these factors aimed at achieving a better understanding of the interplay of media and new religions in tabloid television. In brief, this model proposes that newsworthiness is conditioned by at least four aspects of an event: neg- ativity; resonance with target news consumers; rarity in the experience of targeted news consumers; and conceptual clarity or simplicity with which it may be portrayed.
Titles and taglines can leave viewers with distinct impressions about events portrayed. This is easily established by framing the cult controversy motif in combination with topics of perennial social interest such as celebrity gossip, child protection, con- sumer protection or tax evasion.
Australian tabloid television finds its largest demographic among young, less-educated and more entertainment-oriented consumers for whom stories of scandal sur- rounding persons from popular culture hold great appeal. Rarity of an event in the experience of target news consumers.
While stories on tax fraud and child abuse sadly are commonplace, their occurrence in a minority group already stigmatized as a space alien-worshiping, celebrity-stocked cult makes for riveting newsworthiness.
By appealing to a combination of themes both familiar and fantastic, the program provided a perfect allure for the average tab- loid television consumer.
Conceptual clarity or simplicity with which the event may be portrayed. New religion reports almost always are framed with a strong dualism between good victims and evil cultists. Tabloid Coverage Techniques Tabloid television is notorious for its use of framing techniques that can transform a routine event into high-rating infotainment. It later was revealed that she was a Scientologist. The report employed the eyewitness perspective approach in what we might call a street-chase motif, in which a journalist and videographer literally chase down and confront question a suspected deviant.
In addition to using an eyewitness perspective, this presentation was accompanied by dramatic music and slow-motion flashes. Tabloid Content Factors In addition to tabloid coverage factors, analysis should include tab- loid content factors, sometimes referred to as media topoi,61 or common framing practices that filter the outcome of a story through a particular interpretative lens or predetermined narrative structure.
Three of these approaches are particularly important for scholars: No-charges-filed-an-outrage. This approach often is taken when a group is acquitted or action against them stalled, and where coverage is framed to express widespread indignation from ex-members, politicians or the 52 This content downloaded from This self-promotional approach sometimes is employed by new religions when outside scrutiny fails to produce damn- ing evidence or a proverbial smoking gun.
A number of studies and surveys demonstrate that this is of considerable concern among most Australians. One study in the United States found that Americans showed considerable concern when asked to assess a hypothetical prospect of a new religion buying a major 53 This content downloaded from Celebrity In Australia and elsewhere, celebrities have become the ultimate means of publicizing and marketing consumer products and social causes, particularly with increased media saturation.
While much has been said about shielding celebrities from the harsher realities of Scientology discipline, these interviews presented an attractive and media-savvy public image for Scientology and positive testimonies for the benefits of membership clearly aimed at offsetting two years of almost entirely negative coverage.
As Carole M. Cusack has noted, the celebrity-obsessed nature of contemporary culture has the potential to act as a positive platform for promoting Scientology, but it also can cause damage. A number of celebrity stories have brought Scientology unwanted media attention.
Just as newspaper content anal- ysis allowed scholars to assess media depictions of new religions from the s into the s, other media formats, from cartoons to situation comedies, have adopted and augmented traditional approaches and stereotypical narrative themes around new religions. I have tried to show that traditional criteria for analyzing media treatment of new religions are in need of constant revision in the ever-changing media landscape.
While many traditional themes surrounding the framing of cult controversies have crossed over to tabloid television, it is clear that many of the medium-specific aspects of tabloid television augment and dramatize the appeal of this already-popular form of discourse.
I wish to thank Gary Bouma, J. Gordon Melton, James T.
Richardson and the anonymous reviewers at Nova Religio for reading and commenting on various incarnations of this article and for their invaluable feedback.
All opinions in this article are the responsibility of the author. LC — , Ron Hubbard London: Michael Joseph , S13 , Robert W. Lorne L. Dawson and Douglas E. For more information see the Margins and Zoom section.
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