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Five: History and Memory[ edit ] In this interview conducted in Cambridge, Massachusetts on June 11, , Chomsky begins by relating the bloody history of El Salvador in the s under a military junta supported by U. President Reagan and his 'proconsul' John Negroponte , who with this history effaced was then being sent to Iraq, and goes on to discuss other actions of the administration including the invasions of Grenada and Nicaragua that have been effaced by a post propaganda campaign.
He concludes that while it was the Reagan administration that funded and trained the militants that would later develop in Al-Qaeda it was the Clinton administration 's cruise missile attacks on Afghanistan and Sudan that turned them into anti-Western symbols and the actions of the George W.
Bush administration that intensified their terrorist activities and that the only real difference between presidential candidates John Kerry and George W. Bush would be with regard to domestic policy.
Six: The Doctrine of Good Intentions[ edit ] In this interview conducted in Cambridge, Massachusetts on November 30, , Chomsky begins by dismissing the false conflict between Wilsonian idealism and hard-headed realism, which has become standard story in scholarship and the media regarding U.
He goes on to dismiss the concept of a Vietnam Syndrome and claims that while the U. Such false conceptions, he claims, allow the U. He concludes by opposing the concept of an all-volunteer army as this amounts to a mercenary army of the disadvantaged whilst the draft encourages more civilising ties to the citizen culture to which he attributes in part the failure of U. Imperial aims in Vietnam. Seven: Intellectual Self-Defense[ edit ] In this interview conducted in Cambridge, Massachusetts on December 3, , Chomsky begins by stating that his analysis work is largely the detailed routine of finding and decoding the internalised assumptions of the educated elite and highlights this indoctrinated bias with the example of the attack on Social Security , which, he claims, is intended to undermine solidarity and atomise the population so that they are easy to control.
He points out that the elite media e. These techniques of intellectual self-defense are, he claims, essential for people to understand their power over governments, which relies on their consent to govern and he uses the example of the changing role of women in modern society to demonstrate how the questioning of these underlying biases can lead to real social change.
He concludes that these movements do not necessarily have to come from the oppressed but in fact oppressors who realise their guilt and more importantly attempt to do something about it can be even more effective. Eight: Democracy and Education[ edit ] In this interview conducted in Lexington, Massachusetts on February 7, , Chomsky begins by reminiscing about his early education in a Deweyite school and his relationship with his father, a Hebrew scholar, who first introduced him to Semitic linguistics.
He goes on to recall his subsequent disappointment with the academic discipline of high school and college, which he only continued with under the influence of Zellig Harris , who ran the linguistics department at the University of Pennsylvania.
He states that the academically unprestigious school allowed him an intellectual freedom that worked to his advantage but which means he is mostly self-educated with no formal training in any field, including linguistics. A year ago, more than 10 percent of the Israeli air force was reported to be permanently based in eastern Turkey—at the huge U. In addition, there are credible reports that the United States, Turkey, and Is- rael are attempting to stir up Azeri nationalist forces in northern Iran.
They're not going to invade anyone who they think can fight back. The United States also has troops and bases throughout Central Asia to the north.
Won't this encourage Iran to develop nuclear weapons, if they don't already have them, in seif-defense? Very likely.
And the little serious evidence we have indi- cates that the Israeli bombing of Iraq's Osirak reactor in probably stimulated and may have initiated the Iraqi nuclear weapons development program. But weren't they already engaged in it? They were engaged in building a nuclear plant, but no- body knew its capacity.
It was investigated on the ground after the bombing by a well-known nuclear physicist from Harvard, Richard Wilson. I believe he was head of Harvard's physics department at the time. Wilson pub- lished his analysis in a leading scientific Journal, Nature.
What does the Iraq war and occupation mean for the Pales- tinians? That's interesting to think about. One of the rules of jour- nalism is that when you mention George Bush's name in an article, the headline has to speak of his "vision" and the article has to talk about his "dreams.
It's become a journalistic Conven- tion. A lead story in the Wall Street Journal yesterday, had the words vision and dream about ten times. And we are supposed to praise that as a magnificent vision. But all this talk of Bush's vision and dream of a Palestinian State ignores completely that the United States would have to stop un- dermining the long-term efforts of the rest of the world, virtually without exception, to create some kind of a vi- able political settlement.
For the last twenty-five to thirty years, the U. For example, in December , the Bush administration reversed U.
At least in principle, the United States had previously gone along with the Security Council resolution ordering Israel to revoke its annexa- tion and occupation and settlement policies in East Jerusalem. But the Bush administration reversed that pol- icy. In mid-March , Bush made what was called his first major pronouncement on the Middle East. The head- lines described this as the first significant statement in years, and so on.
If you read the speech, it was boiler- plate, except for one sentence. That one sentence, if you take a look at it closely, said, "As progress is made toward peace, settlement activity in the occupied territories must end. That means until the peace process reaches a point that Bush endorses, which could be indefinitely far in the future, Israel should continue to build settlements. That's also a change in policy.
Up until now, officially at least, the United States has been op- posed to expansion of the illegal settlement programs that make a political solution impossible. Go on and settle. We'll keep paying for it, until we decide that somehow the peace process has reached an adequate point. This represents a significant change toward more aggression, undermining of interna- tional law, and undermining of the possibilities of peace.
You've described the level ofpublic protest and resistance to the Iraq war as "unprecedented. Where is that resistance going in the United States and internationally? I don't know any way to predict human affairs. It will go the way people decide it will go. There are many possibil- ities. It should intensify The tasks are now much greater and more serious than they were before.
On the other hand, it's harder. It's just psychologically easier to orga- nize to oppose a military attack than it is to oppose a long-standing program of imperial ambition, of which this attack is one phase, with others to come.
That takes more thought, more dedication, more long-term engage- ment. It's the difference between deciding, I'm going out to a demonstration tomorrow and then back home, and deciding, I'm in this for the long haul. This is the 6th volume is a series of interviews between Barsamian and Chomsky that began with the Common Courage Press publication Chronicles of Dissent and was preceded by the South End Press publication Propaganda and the Public Mind ; it is the first collection of interviews with Chomsky since the Seven Stories Press publication The interviews in this volume were conducted between March 22, , and February 8, , for the most part in Chomsky's office at M.
In his introduction, written in Boulder, Colorado in July , Barsamian discusses what it is like to interview Chomsky, after having done so for the past 20 years, and states that, "It's to be in the presence of someone who insists that it's not so complicated to understand the truth or to know how to act. In this interview conducted in Cambridge, Massachusetts on March 22, , Chomsky begins by stating that the invasion of Iraq demonstrates a new doctrine he defines as preventative war where the U.
If the establishment of a new regime in Iraq is successful he postulates that the U. He adds however that this attack will only go ahead if Iran is perceived as unable to fight back and that this has encouraged Iran to undertake the development of nuclear weapons just as Iraq was encouraged to do so by the Israeli bombing of the Osirak reactor in He concludes by stating that anti-war protestors should not lose hope but prepare for the long haul like the abolitionist and civil rights movements did before.
In this interview conducted in Boulder, Colorado on April 5, , Chomsky begins by musing on the progress of co-ordinated propaganda first used by the British and later U. President Woodrow Wilson to win U. He sees Karl Rove as the inheritor of this legacy with the instigation of a campaign to instil fear in the American populous with false claims about Iraq and portray George W. Bush as their saviour so that they will accept a domestic policy that goes against their own interests.
He postulates that there is a propensity for fear particular to U. In this interview conducted in Cambridge, Massachusetts on September 11, , Chomsky begins by outlining the U. S's long standing policy of instigating regime change back to the Iranian coup and then compares Iraq's U. He states that the drive for resources is an important factor in U. S's imperial policy but not the only one and that whilst North Korea was a tempting target due to its strategic location amidst the developing economies of Northeast Asia it had a deterrent artillery pointed at Seoul that Iraq lacked and goes on to point out that Imperial occupation is actually quite costly although these costs are in effect gifts from the taxpayers to private corporations like Bechtel and Halliburton.
He agrees with Jawaharlal Nehru 's analysis that Imperialism is inherently racist but points out that it is necessary for Imperialists to give their mission a moral basis and as John Stuart Mill did this for the British Empire so now Michael Ignatieff and other intellectuals are doing it for the American Empire but the populace should ignore these apologists and speak the truth. In this interview conducted in Cambridge, Massachusetts on February 12, , Chomsky starts by responding to Robert McNamara 's comments about the World War II firebombing of Tokyo in The Fog of War by pointing out that definition of a war crime at the Nuremberg Trials was anything the enemy did that the Allies didn't do and goes on to point out that this logic is central to the Bush doctrine.
One of the key crimes prosecuted at the Trials was that of waging a war of aggression but Chomsky claims that the U. He cites polls that state the majority of Iraqis view the U. He concludes that the U.
In this interview conducted in Cambridge, Massachusetts on June 11, , Chomsky begins by relating the bloody history of El Salvador in the s under a military junta supported by U.
President Reagan and his 'proconsul' John Negroponte , who with this history effaced was then being sent to Iraq, and goes on to discuss other actions of the administration including the invasions of Grenada and Nicaragua that have been effaced by a post propaganda campaign.
He concludes that while it was the Reagan administration that funded and trained the militants that would later develop in Al-Qaeda it was the Clinton administration 's cruise missile attacks on Afghanistan and Sudan that turned them into anti-Western symbols and the actions of the George W. Bush administration that intensified their terrorist activities and that the only real difference between presidential candidates John Kerry and George W.
Bush would be with regard to domestic policy. In this interview conducted in Cambridge, Massachusetts on November 30, , Chomsky begins by dismissing the false conflict between Wilsonian idealism and hard-headed realism, which has become standard story in scholarship and the media regarding U. He goes on to dismiss the concept of a Vietnam Syndrome and claims that while the U.